Image credit: Anang Dianto (photographer). Oryza sativa contains two major subspecies: the sticky, short-grained japonica or sinica variety, and the nonsticky, long-grained indica rice  variety. Here, traditions relate that the supreme deity, the rain “god” known as Emitai, gave “Diola rice” (O. glaberrima) to the ancestors. Box plots depicted high estimates of variability for days to 50% flowering and grain yield per plant in Kharif 2016, plant height, productive tillers, panicle length and 1000 seed weight in Kharif 2017. In this community, the deep and productive fields that had been carved from the mangrove (i.e., the weng) no longer existed. F. O. glaberrima Steudel (six varieties, including one hybrid, eight types). Jola women also prefer longer-grained rice, which is easier to pound, and nonglutinous varieties that they say are easier to cook. Some West African farmers, including the Jola of southern Senegal, still grow African rice … the salt tolerance levels in Oryza glaberrimaand the interspeciﬁ c progenies including New Rice for Africa (NERICA). Oryza is a genus of plants in the grass family. Several hybrids between Oryza sativa and O. glaberrima and their backcrosses with O. sativa were studied. RICE is a staple food crop worldwide and a model organism for the study of monocots (Li et al. Slight morphological differences separate the two species of rice, making them difficult to tell apart in the field. Of the 1989 varieties, three were old O. sativa varieties that had been around before, and the rest were new, fast-ripening O. sativa varieties that had been introduced in the preceding years. Numerous creeks or marigots, filled with brackish water and lined with mangrove vegetation, branch out from the Casamance River, crisscrossing the low-lying areas and creating an amphibian landscape. Other ecological characteristics of the two species may more important from the point of view of human selection potential. The native species is thus rapidly diminishing in importance. This question is for testing whether or not you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions. - 126.96.36.199. Lower Casamance is one of the two centers of O. glaberrima diversification suggested by Portères (1, 2). Scattered references to rice are also found in the chronicle of Duarte Pacheco Pereira dating from 1506–1508. In 1999 it climbed slightly to 94 kg per person per year (Table 8–5 in ref. Recent agronomic advances now allow for gene transfer between the two species, thus creating hybrids that are better adapted, and higher yielding under adverse conditions, than either parent species. 2013). Although difficult to measure, the protracted civil war that has brought endless confrontations between soldiers of the Senegalese army and Jola rebels of the MFDC forces (Mouvement des Forces Démocratiques de la Casamance) has caused the abandonment of several Jola communities in the southern sector, near the frontier with Guinea Bissau. , a sporo-gametophytic sterility gene previously identified by Sano (1990). The cultural aspects that dominate Jola women's choice of which varieties to plant have to do with their taste, the ease with which they are pounded (or milled), and how they respond to cooking. A. O. sativa L., subspecies O. brevis Gutschin (one variety, one type). Oryza sativa Japonica Group (Oryza sativa Japonica Group, IRGSP-1.0) and Oryza glaberrima (Oryza glaberrima, Oryza_glaberrima_V1) were aligned using the LastZ alignment algorithm () in Ensembl Plants release 76.Oryza sativa Japonica Group was used as the reference species. This work was supported by grants from the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. The main interests of such a PCR-based map for African rice breeding are discussed, including gene and QTL localisation, marker-assisted selection, and the development of interspecific introgression lines. & Ghesquière, A. While Oryza glaberrima is also technically rice, O. sativa is the plant we mean when we casually say rice, and is vastly more significant. Rain gauges set up in the community of Sindian, very near to Jipalom, registered <1,000 mm in 14 of 20 years between 1973 and 1993. The effects of submergence on shoot elongation, shoot biomass, leaf area and CO2uptake were studied and compared with those of O. sativa. Tall varieties are easier to harvest than short ones, but they tend to lodge (i.e., to fall or lie down). South of the river, however, in the wetter, more intensive rice-growing regions west of Oussouye, in the lands located at the entrance of the Casamance River, the majority of the inhabitants have remained practitioners of the traditional awasena religion (from kawasen, to pour palm wine libations at the shrines) (17). Here we present a high-quality assembly and annotation of the O. glaberrima genome and detailed analyses of its evolutionary history of … It is also cultivated in peri-urban zones around secondary cities such as Ziguinchor, the capital of the Casamance, and Bignona, a town north of the Casamance River. Further on he describes the technology used by the Felupos or Jola: “The lands that are flat and well irrigated are perfectly cultivated, and they do not use but shovels of wood provided with a flat piece of iron at one end and a long handle to cultivate” (ref. In 1685 or thereabouts, Sieur de la Courbe crossed the hinterland between the Gambia and Guinea Bissau, a territory that he mentions was occupied by the Felupos (the Jola) and the Banyun (the ancient Bainouk). Enter multiple addresses on separate lines or separate them with commas. (6) have suggested an alternative theory. Interestingly, African rice is not of the same origin as Asian rice (Oryza sativa L.) but rather is an entirely different species (i.e., Oryza glaberrima Steud.). A. At present, O. glaberrima is being replaced by the introduced Asian species of rice, Oryza sativa. Learn more about Institutional subscriptions, IRD (ex-Orstom), GeneTrop Laboratory, BP 5045, 34032 Montpellier cedex, France, FR, M. Lorieux, M.-N. Ndjiondjop & A. Ghesquière, You can also search for this author in This is one of the most detailed early references (circa 1685) to the kajandu, the long-handled fulcrum shovel used by the Jola and their close relatives in Guinea Bissau to turn over the earth and prepare their fields. The Jola practice a labor-intensive form of wet-rice cultivation. August and September, crucial months when the rain-fed fields had to be tilled before transplanting, received <200 mm of rain each, compared with >500 mm the year before. between species showed that O. sativa, Nerica, Oryza barthii and O. glaberrima produced 51, 45, 40 and 36 alleles with 1461, 238, 305 and 445 polymorphic bands respectively with 17 SSR markers. In the late 1960s, and for several ensuing decades, many sub-Saharan African countries, including Senegal, entered a drought-ridden period. In any case, African rice is said be “heavier” on the stomach and hence better at quenching hunger. In Jipalom, it is the women who select the rice seed; it is they, and not the men, who can distinguish the different varieties (Fig. Oryza sativa Japonica Group vs Oryza glaberrima LastZ Results. It is known for its hardiness and its ability to compete with weeds, pests, infertile soils and human neglect. glaberrima… Trading varieties sometimes takes place over considerable distances, between women living in separate villages, so that rice seed circulates over wide spheres of exchange. In doing so, they used seeds of African rice varieties that local farmers, many of them women from Guinea, grew in their fields, and incorporated them into gene banks. In communities north of the Casamance River, such as Jipalom, the inhabitants converted to Islam beginning in the 1930s. The two species of rice have recently been crossed, producing a promising hybrid. (GCW) -> Oryza sativa L. (GCW) Oryza nivara S. D. Sharma & Shastry (GCW) -> Oryza sativa L. (GCW); Oryza rufipogon Griff. But the O. glaberrima types also offer distinct advantages: the plants have luxurious wide leaves that shade out weeds and the species is more resistant than its Asian cousin to diseases and pests. Thus, both cultural and ecological variables entered significantly into these developments. Because different kinds of soils are found in the various types of paddy fields (sandy soils in the nurseries, for example, and clayey soils in the kuyelen fields that retain rainwater) it is imperative that the right kind of seed or seedling is put in each sector of the rice fields. Rice varieties from the southern Jola area tend to be “sweeter” tasting, except when they have been stored for a long time in granaries placed on the ceiling of the cooking huts; rice thus stored acquires a smoky taste. 4). As a National Research Council report points out, “this should not be allowed to happen. In the absence of firm archaeological evidence it is difficult to assess whether Portères (1, 2) is correct in suggesting that O. glaberrima was first domesticated in the Inland Delta of the Upper Niger River, in what is today Mali, ≈2,000 or 3,000 years ago. Copyright © 2020 National Academy of Sciences. B. The genus Oryza has two independently domesticated species: cultivated Asian rice (Oryza sativa) and cultivated African rice (Oryza glaberrima) (Khush 1997). This article begins with information about the past and present status of African rice and then moves to a detailed example of when, how, and why it was cultivated by the Jola, a population of ancient rice growing peoples living in the swampy coastal areas of Casamance, in southern Senegal. sativa F 1 hybrid with four different O. sativa cultivars. The first Portuguese chronicler to mention rice growing in the Upper Guinea Coast was Gomes Eanes de Azurara in 1446. Hybrid sterility hinders the transfer of useful traits between Oryza sativaand O. glaberrima. We present here the results on the development of these progenies and on the segregations scored at 6 isozyme loci. At the present time, O. glaberrima is being replaced everywhere in West Africa by the Asian species, introduced into the continent by the Portuguese as early as the middle of the 16th century (1). and the Asian rice (Oryza sativa L.), to produce a progeny that combines the best traits of both parents: high yields from the Asian parent and tolerance of the African parent to harsh environments. The high productivity conferred on the NERICA strains by their Asian parents means that yields can be increased from the previous 1 ton per hectare to 1.5 tons without major inputs. Genetic insights could help shore up populations of a rare dog species thought to be nearly extinct in the wild. Two Oryza species are important cereals for human nutrition: Oryza sativa (Asian rice), grown worldwide, and Oryza glaberrima (African rice), grown in parts of West Africa. Whereas Asian rice (Oryza sativa) has been extensively studied, the exact origins of African rice (Oryza glaberrima) are still contested. Thirty-one accessions of Oryza glaberrima were evaluated to study the genetic variability, correlation, path, principal component analysis (PCA) and D 2 analysis. 3), weed the crop, and harvest the rice panicles individually (16) (Fig. To summarize, the ancient species of African rice survives in pockets of Lower Casamance, where the Jola employ it in sacred rites. The kind of fractured rice that is imported from Southeast Asia that can now be bought in town stores is mainly consumed by rural Jola living north of the Casamance River. The new varieties, named “New Rice for Africa” (hence NERICA), are a cross between O. glaberrima and O. sativa. Part of Springer Nature. African O. glaberrima varieties have certain negative features with respect to the Asian O. sativa: the seed scatters easily, the grain is brittle and difficult to mill, and, most importantly, the yields are lower. PubMed Google Scholar, Received: 1 June 1991 / Accepted: 22 June 1999, Lorieux, M., Ndjiondjop, MN. This is the more Islamicized area, where rice-production has diminished markedly since the years of drought. Oryza glaberrima is a very variable, robust, annual grass with erect, stout culms usually growing up to 120cm tall but with some floating types up to 5 metres tall[299. The results of his identifications are presented in the following outline. The two species, O. glaberrima and O. sativa, are also easily separated on the basis of their morphology, and their growth and ecological features are well known. Image credit: Aurora Fernández Durán (photographer). African rice was independently domesticated ~3000 years ago in the Niger River Delta from its still extant progenitor, Oryza barthii . 1) that has a sub-Guinean tropical climate and a marshy, coastal landscape. In short, the preferences and patterns that the Jola articulate with respect to their preferred rice varieties reflect a wide range of reasoning, from ecological or environmental to cultural and, as we shall see, religious. Thus, women know that the African types mature earlier, are usually direct seeded on higher ground rather than transplanted, and are hardier but lower yielding than the Asian types. The African species of rice ( Oryza glaberrima) was cultivated long before Europeans arrived in the continent. Their knowledge, expertise, and continued adherence to their traditional rice provided the basis for experiments that resulted in the creation of a promising new hybrid. In the coastal area, where rice is a dominant subsistence crop, isolated pockets of O. glaberrima cultivation remain in Guinea Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, and in the Casamance region of southern Senegal, the zone we are concerned with here. To provide a tool for evaluation and utilisation of the potential of O. glaberrima in rice breeding, we developed an interspecific O. glaberrima×Oryza sativa genetic linkage map. Origins and geographic diversification of African rice (Oryza glaberrima) Rice is a staple food for the majority of the world’s population. The rice samples collected were then identified in 1966 by R. Portères, the renowned rice expert, who divided the sample into the two species and named their various subspecies and types. Four progenies of crosses between the two cultivated rice species were obtained by pollinating a common Oryza glaberrima/O. Some West African farmers, including the Jola of southern Senegal, still grow African rice for use in ritual contexts. The colinearity with intraspecific maps was very good, confirming previous cytological observations. Oryza glaberrima is the scientific name for African rice, following the standard Latin two-part naming system (binomial nomenclature) introduced by the Swede, Carl Linnaeus, in the 18 th century. We do not capture any email address. The Jola use sophisticated methods of rainwater control and distribution, keep the tidal waters out of their rice fields and construct fish ponds, apply abundant amounts of cattle dung for fertilizer, transplant seedlings from prepared nurseries into flooded fields (Fig. Abstract. Another criterion taken into consideration is whether a particular variety does well in clayey soils, or if it is better suited to grow in sandy soils. The years of drought had a profound impact on the Jola agricultural system and, more specifically, on the farming practices of the Jipalom inhabitants. Another woman will trade a fast-growing for a slower-maturing variety depending on her needs. It was substituted by a few nurseries made in the backyards of houses. “Africa is moving rapidly toward a third decade of declining food production and increasing population growth” (23). Only one-third to one-half of the rain-fed or biit fields were being cultivated. Conditions improved somewhat in the years after 1993. The exception, however, is the O. glaberrima variety called ejonkin. He writes, “I saw fields of rice located along the river; they are traversed by small walkways from space to space that prevents the water from running out; after it rains, one seeds the rice, which grows in the water” (14). It will help their countries save millions of dollars in rice imports. grown in pots without competition among plants. It also makes a good flour that is more aromatic and tastes better than the flour made from the O. sativa species. At present, O. glaberrima is being replaced by the introduced Asian species of rice, Oryza sativa. The rice they grew was doubtless the African species O. glaberrima. African rice was domesticated from wild African rice, Oryza barthii, while Asian rice (Oryza sativa), was domesticated from wild Asian rice, Oryza rufipogon. Variety mutica, types longi-perlonga and longa. Their seed sterility was very different; large differences were also observed in the level of pollen sterility and in the earliness of microspore failure. In addition, rice is an important but not a dominant crop in the drier savanna zones from the Senegal River to Lake Chad. In Bignona, a town close to the Jipalom community, rainfall for the month of June 1968 was only one-third that of previous years. ... (Oryza sativa) is to be found in the diversity of this plant, with cultivars adapted to hill (dry), swamp, flood and floating conditions. Interviews with the elderly ladies of the community confirmed that in the not-too distant past they grew many more African rice varieties. Per capita food production in 1966–1968 averaged 119 kg per person per year. Already in the 1590s, André Alvares d'Almada, who was born in Cabo Verde of mixed European and African heritage (thus a Luso-African) and was well seasoned by travels up and down the Guinea Coast that helped him to become a good naturalist, provides us with an account of rice cultivation as practiced by peoples living along the Gambia, Casamance, and Geba rivers. Since then, yearly imports have increased 8-fold to 4 million metric tons (www.gene.ch/genet/2000/Mar/msg00063.html). It compares the status of O. glaberrima in 1960 with what it is today, when only remnant populations remain. A first interspecific Oryza sativa×Oryza glaberrima microsatellite-based genetic linkage map. The African species of rice (Oryza glaberrima) was cultivated long before Europeans arrived in the continent. Small quantities of cooked rice belonging to any O. glaberrima species, in this instance ejonkin, must be placed each year around the shrine to ask for abundant rains. In that year, only nine varieties of O. sativa were being grown in the village, and only one variety of the O. glaberrima species. Talking about a visit he made to the Île de Los, off the coast of Conakry, the capital of present-day Guinea, he mentions that at the entrance of the market “there were several large mounds of rice, and with human labor it was carried back to the ships” (9). For these various reasons, Jola women constantly exchange rice seed with other women. sativa) population. 10 Recent development of mapped molecular markers provides the opportunity to rationalise and to monitor introgressions between the two cultivated rice species. Drought was not the only factor affecting rice diversity in Lower Casamance. This marshy terrain is crisscrossed by marigots that create small islands where the people live and cultivate their rice fields. Thus, the new rice holds great promise for a region in desperate need of decreasing hunger and increasing food security. MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE. Variety rigida, types media and medilonga. Once the rice has sprouted, they pull it out and transplant it on land that is less inundated, where the rice yields” (12). In summary, 6 of 19 varieties, or nearly one-third of the rice that was grown in 1965 by the inhabitants of the Jipalom community, belonged to the African rice (O. glaberrima) species. But the fast-ripening O. sativa varieties that were to be harvested beginning in 2000 had matured all at the same time, making it impossible for the Jipalom women to gather the entire crop at once. Some West African farmers, including the Jola of southern Senegal, still grow African rice for use in ritual contexts. In West Africa, rice is grown as the main staple crop by 10–15 million people living in societies that are distributed along the coast, from the Casamance in Senegal to the bend of the Bandama River in the Ivory Coast. Thus, what is eaten is kept separate from what is required in sacred rituals. Oryza glaberrima is an endemic African cultivated rice species. Interestingly, only 2% or 15% of the varieties grown belonged to the African O. glaberrima species. In importance the final section argues that farmers need to preserve African rice was 400,000 tons, or grilled hot... Thought to be nearly extinct in the Jola of southern Senegal, entered a drought-ridden period farmers to. Chromosomes show discrepancies with the productivity of the community confirmed that in the ritual, however, is the subsistence! 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