The structural parameters of these models are often empirically estimated through standard econometric techniques. Keynesians or New Keynesians: First emerged as followers of Keynes during The Great Depression and post-war period. Mainstream economics follows the idea of individualism where individual behaviour is simply aggregated to form a measure of macroeconomic level, ruling out any micro-macro paradoxes beforehand. Mainstream economics is divided in two fields: Microeconomics and macroeconomics. Every year we have large costs for programming, staff and to support our authors. First, monetary theory should be historically specific. It is committed to diversity and independence and is dependent on donations from people like you. Individuals, due to psychological reasons and fundamental uncertainty, compare themselves to others and built their decisions partly on rules of thumb and habits. 75/2016. Post Keynesian Theory and Policy challenges the axioms on which orthodox economic theory is based and argues against their applicability to a money-using, market-oriented economy. Both of these examples relate to differences in the methodological, ontological and epistemological views and beliefs in both schools. The question of how this can be achieved in the social and political domain is not often directly answered in PK literature. Also known as homo economicus, this concept allows them to make seemingly accurate predictions about the future economy, while not taking into account that humans do not behave like this agent in reality. nominal wage contracts stabilising the price level), as well as to instability (e.g. In the UK, post-Keynesian economists can be found in: In the United States, there are several universities with a post-Keynesian bent:[further explanation needed]. On the grounds of this social determination of behaviour, post-Keynesian theory emphasizes the role of different classes (the main classes being workers, capitalists and rentiers) and institutions in society. This has given another boost to stock-flow consistent modelling. We have decided to offer our learning materials free of charge because we believe in an open, pluralist economic science that is available to everyone, worldwide. portfolio decisions and credit taking) are strongly interdependent among individuals. An example may be the link between microeconomic assumptions (like competition, pricing and firm behaviour) and macroeconomic theory (like the determination of functional income distribution, which is the distribution of the GDP to wages and profits). The reality is that the only people who could possibly think Keynesian economics is synonymous with socialism are people who really don’t understand Keynes at all and who have read none of his work. To this is joined an insight The underlying behavioural assumptions, for instance about consumer or firm behaviour, are typically not strictly modelled but justified by stylized facts and knowledge of empirical regularities. Social structures and macroeconomic phenomena may exert causal powers that affect human behaviour, which then in turn determines macro-phenomena. On top of that, logical reasoning plays an important role. The heart and soul of Exploring Economics is a community of people working to bring you unlimited access to high-qualitiy, economic learning and teaching material. For instance, some variables function as adjustment variables which guarantee that the budget constraints of all agents or sectors are simultaneously met. It argues that unfettered capitalism will create a productive market on its own. Furthermore, both schools of thought reject Say’s law, though some Marxists only do so for the short run. Monetary circuit theory, originally developed in continental Europe, places particular emphasis on the distinctive role of money as means of payment. (2009): Macroeconomics and Macroeconomic Pedagogy, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. In justifying the pursuit for socially progressive capitalism, many post-Keynesian economists claim to find historical precedence for these prospects in the Golden Age or Fordist regime of capitalism, from the 1950s to the 1970s. If everything runs well, expectations of agents become validated as payment obligations are met and the economy prospers. An ABM is a computer simulation of many interacting heterogeneous agents, which can be used to study the emerging aggregate outcomes from individual interactions and their feedback on the individual level. Accordingly, SFC modeling fits very well within the holistic methodological approach of PKE and the comprehensive accounting allows to derive some relationships from pure accounting, meaning that these models rely less on behavioural equations. The doctor who saved post-classical capitalism (also called monopoly capitalism) from communism and fascism was John Maynard Keynes. PK economists are generally supportive of trade unions as they have an important influence on wage bargaining coordination and therefore price stability. We do this without advertising because we want to remain independent of commercial interests. Those are sold to obtain a profit and to repay the debt plus interest that has been incurred to finance investment. It explores the basis for Keynes's revolutionary general theory and seeks to dispel misconceptions often found in orthodox textbooks. A post-capitalist society does not mean the elimination of the market. BIBLIOGRAPHY. Therefore, mainstream economists focus on the allocation of these resources and hence view prices as an indicator of scarcity. However, there are again some important differences between both schools, especially regarding methodology. The ABM methodology differs greatly from the representative agent approach, since the state of any single agent over the course of the simulation does not necessarily provide any information about the aggregate state or behaviour of the model, and time plays an important role. Harcourt Jesus College Cambridge I Maynard Keynes’s best known remark is: “ In the long run we are all dead” (Keynes (1923); C.W. In the field of finance, Hyman Minsky put forward a theory of financial crisis based on financial fragility, which has received renewed attention. Their main concern is rather how to employ all the idle labour and capital. Post-Keynesian economics is a school of economic thought with its origins in The General Theory of John Maynard Keynes, with subsequent development influenced to a large degree by Michał Kalecki, Joan Robinson, Nicholas Kaldor, Sidney Weintraub, Paul Davidson, Piero Sraffa and Jan Kregel. This emphasises the fact that for PKE, there is no fundamental trade-off between social cohesion as a political target and growth as the economic means to maintain high levels of employment and to improve living conditions. Monetary policy should target low interest rates to provide stability in the monetary, financial and real sector. Among others, the most important methods are formal macro modelling and econometric estimation, stock-flow consistent and agent-based modelling employing computer simulations, as well as institutional analyses and case studies. This view can be summarised by the rule of thumb that it is better to be roughly right than precisely wrong. In times of generally optimistic expectations, investment demand may be buoyant and set in motion a phase of strong credit growth, capital accumulation and income generation. The name of post-Keynesian economics itself obscures the contributions of several different and influential authors. Fourth, the economy is path-dependent which is why there is no predetermined equilibrium in the future to which the economy can adjust. They are also unanimous in their joint endeavour of building an alternative economic theory that is more suitable for analysing the inherent features of modern capitalist economies, such as unemployment, (financial) crises, business cycles, depressions, technological change, and uneven development. Keynesian Versus Classical Economic Theories . In Germany, post-Keynesianism is very strong at the Berlin School of Economics and Law [18] and its master's degree course: International Economics [M.A.]. If everyone reading this gave a small amount, we could keep Exploring Economics thriving for years to come - but 99% of our users don't give. Third, the future is fundamentally uncertain, and so it is impossible to apply probabilities to different possible futures. Although PKE, like most other scientific disciplines, does not provide an elaborated philosophical ontology, its theories do imply presuppositions about the existence and nature of certain entities that make up economic reality. Keynes was one of the most typical products of the British bourgeoisie. GDP growth or inflation) of a dynamic economy that is subject to structural change. Stock-flow consistent (SFC) models represent another strand of post-Keynesian formal macro modeling that has become increasingly popular in recent years. This is reflected in a certain caution and modesty with respect to the reliability of economic predictions about quantitative variables (e.g. All of these macroeconomic paradoxes are, for instance, important building blocks of a thorough explanation of the recent financial crisis. King, John Edward (Ed.) This period notably featured, in advanced capitalist countries, steady economic growth, a more egalitarian distribution of income, full (or close to full) employment, a stronger social security net, greater regulation of the financial sector and a more actively interventionist state engaged in aggregate demand management than that seen during the subsequent ‘neoliberal era’. That is, that economic activity in a capitalist monetary economy is demand-driven and that there are no built-in mechanisms that guarantee full employment and full utilisation of capacities. Fontana, G.; Sawyer, M. (2015): Towards post-Keynesian ecological macroeconomics. Chapter 1: The transition towards finance-dominated capitalism: French Regulation School, Social Structures of Accumulation and post-Keynesian approaches compared; Chapter 2: Finance-dominated capitalism, distribution, growth and crisis – long-run tendencies; Chapter 3: Theories of financial crises as cumulative processes – an overview While there are some attempts in PKE which investigate the question of the socio-economic and socio-political factors that can lead to certain shifts of overall economic or capitalist regimes, it can be argued that these questions are not the major concern of PK academic literature. These forms of group behaviour lie at the heart of post-Keynesian explanations of the recent financial crisis. When everybody saves more out of their income to repay debt, aggregate income declines and leverage ratios rise. Relying too heavily on Keynes as the intellectual founding father also has its disadvantages as it can lead to sterile discussions about what Keynes truly said, or what Keynes truly, truly said. Post-Keynesian Economics. IV, 1971, 65, emphasis in original). Asia: Japanese Society for Post Keynesian Economics, seminars, 
conferences, Keynes Society Japan, annual conferences, Denmark: Nordic post-Keynesian network (conferences), France: PK conferences at the University of Dijon, partly co-organised by the French Association pour le Developpement des Etudes Keynesiennes (ADEK), French PKs heavily involved in the newly founded Association Francaise d’Economie Politique (AFEP), conferences and other activities, Spain: University of the Basque Country in cooperation with the Cambridge Centre for Economic and Public Policy, annual conferences, Germany: German Keynes Society, small annual conferences for German speaking participants, Research Network Macroeconomics and 
Macroeconomic Policies (FMM), annual international conferences, biennial summer schools, Brazil: several universities (Campinas, Rio de Janeiro, ...). However, the labour market determines nominal wages and therefore nominal unit labour costs. Fontana, G., Setterfield, M. The University of Newcastle in New South Wales, Australia, houses the post-Keynesian think-tank the Centre of Full Employment and Equity (CofFEE). Casino Capitalism. There are lots of myths out there about Keynesian Economics so here are some facts: 1. This view has largely been incorporated into monetary policy,[citation needed] which now targets the interest rate as an instrument, rather than the quantity of money. Instead, inflation is regarded as the outcome of unresolved distributional conflict. Again it must first be noted that PKE does not provide a coherent epistemology, and that individual post-Keynesians probably hold very different views about truth, knowledge and the degree to which we can obtain knowledge of economic reality. Germany: Berlin School of Economics and Law and the HTW University of Applied Sciences Berlin, without PhD. It is a heterodox approach to economics. These include stagnation, excessive inflation or deflation, recessions, financial and economic crises, among others. Economists should be aware of the limits to economic knowledge and rather work to develop realistic theories that provide an adequate description of actual causal mechanisms and plausible explanations. Godley, W., Lavoie, M. (2007): Monetary Economics: An Integrated Approach to Credit, Money, Income, Production and Wealth. A credit-investment-income mechanism is thereby established and investment demand creates corresponding saving. His … Edward Elgar Publishing, The Oxford Handbook of Post-Keynesian Economic The overall awareness about ecological problems and, in particular, climate change have also had an influence on PKE. The Keynesians have the cheek to claim that the very event which proved their stagnation thesis wrong — the post-war re-expansion of capitalism — was the result of the adoption of their policies. Mainstream economists therefore use the concept of a perfect optimising agent. Keynes’ contributions were in part themselves based on neoclassical foundations, as he was a student of Alfred Marshall. The Neo-Keynesian theory was articulated and developed mainly in the U.S. during the post-war period. PKE rejects the methodological individualism that underlies much of mainstream economics. This view reflects the insights that arise from Keynes's 1937 analysis of the finance motive. For Marxists and PKE, money is a central element for the analysis of inherently unstable capitalist economies. Although by name they are very similar, post-Keynesianism is quite different from Old Keynesianism as well as New Keynesian economics. In fact, PKE makes great use of the analysis of microeconomic and socio-political issues that can be found in institutional economics. US: University of Massachusetts Amherst, the New School for Social Research, New York, the University of Missouri, Kansas City, and at the University of Utah, Salt Lake City. Much of Nicholas Kaldor’s work was based on the ideas of increasing returns to scale, path dependency, and the key differences between the primary and industrial sectors.[16]. Harcourt, G.C. Theoretical assumptions should be in line with basic empirical knowledge of actual economic behaviour and phenomena. Temporary adverse shocks may therefore reduce potential output permanently, just as well as a high unemployment rate might push up the non-accelerating inflation rate of unemployment (NAIRU), and the actual growth rate influences the natural rate of growth. Post-Keynesian theory offers a wide set of feasible policy instruments. Regarding international economic policies, PKE does not regard free trade as beneficial for poorer countries as long as it does not help them to build their own competitive manufacturing sectors. Kaleckians are mainly interested with output and employment, business cycles, growth theory and pricing issues. This approach is strongly opposed to the epistemological viewpoint of instrumentalism, which does not care about the degree of reality reflected in core assumptions and only seeks to achieve correct predictions. Our vision is a pluralistic and critical economic science that finds an answer to the climate crisis and other major challenges. Lavoie, M. (2006): Introduction to Post-Keynesian Economics, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Lastly, all Post-Keynesians stress the importance of fundamental uncertainty in the economy and that capitalism is driven by the “animal spirits”. Fundamental uncertainty also shapes behaviour of firms, which operate in imperfectly competitive markets rendering them price makers and quantity takers. Therefore, agent-based modeling is a promising endeavour to provide an explicit microstructure for the emergent macro properties of PK models. One might talk about two divers. ; Kriesler, P. Horizontalist analyses are criticised from three angles. post-Keynesian firm is supposed to set prices using a cost-plus pricing procedure, one can ... to managerial capitalism, the second part of this section tackles the issue of financializa- Finally, there has been a strong increase in the diversity of modelling methods used by PK economists. An institutional analysis of the practice of banking and central banking, for instance, might elucidate how credit money is created, how interest rates are determined and how the central bank can affect the short-term interbank rate (e.g. Keynes: The Instability of Capitalism (Post Keynesian … First, while PKE stresses the importance of realism - trying to tell relevant stories about the economy, based on real facts - mainstream economics follows the view of instrumentalism - which does not care about the degree of reality reflected in their assumptions, as long as they will allow precise predictions. Modern Monetary Theory is a relatively recent offshoot influenced by the macroeconomic modelling of Wynne Godley and Hyman Minsky's ideas on the labour market, as well as chartalism and functional finance. The capitalist macro-economy thus forms a system that has to be analysed in a systemic way — what happens in one sector of the economy has effects on other sectors, too. Theories that fail to take into account basic accounting identities and their substantive economic consequences are certainly regarded as flawed by post-Keynesians. Harcourt, G.C., Kriesler, P. (2013) (eds): The Oxford Handbook of Post- Keynesian Economics, 2 Volumes, Oxford: Oxford University Press. Post-Keynesians are united in their rejection of the different versions of neoclassical economics as inappropriate for the analysis of a monetary, capitalist economy. However, there are some implicit assumptions about the relationship between reality and scientific knowledge that are typical for PKE. An Introduction to Political Economy and Economics, The Economics of Money and Banking Course by Perry Mehrling (Ivy 2.0), Inequality 101 with Branko Milanovic & Arjun Jayadev, Clips on Climate: Postkeynesian Economics, The Age of Uncertainty Episode 6 The Rise and Fall of Money, Current Problems of Secular Stagnation from a Global Perspe…, Mariana Mazzucato on New Economic Approaches, Economics and Political Power during the Crisis, Mathematical Economics in the 19th Century, Prof. Dr. Irene van Staveren, Prof. Dr. Therefore, some economists claim that Kalecki - who published even before Keynes, but only in Polish at first - was in a way the true founder of PKE, as his analysis was less inspired by neoclassical theory. First, post-Keynesians share the view that it is the task of empirical science to collect and systematise statements about the world that should reflect reality as adequately as possible. The Sraffians focused more on relative prices and choices of techniques, among others. Likewise, theoretical hypotheses that are derived from PK theories may be empirically tested through econometrics. Two examples are the emphasis on fiscal policy as the main tool to fight economic recessions in the short-run and the view that central banks should maintain low interest rates and regulate the banking system rather than narrowly focusing on fighting inflation. private debt. A brief intellectual history of Post Keynesian ideas is provided, along with a discussion of some important methodological questions. The economy is developing in historical time, which means that the past has a persistent effect on the future through path dependency. This leads to a concern with historical time, where expectations have a significant and unavoidable impact on economic events. PKE, although acknowledging the positive entrepreneurial effects, is highly suspicious of unfettered markets and tend way more toward tight regulation. Exploring Economics is a community project. Post-Keynesians conceive capitalist economies as highly productive, but unstable and conflictive systems. Nevertheless, every academic has a specific ideology that he or she employs in the assessment of a theory. We are a registered non-profit organization | Bank account: Netzwerk Plurale Ökonomik e.V., IBAN: DE91 4306 0967 6037 9737 00, SWIFT-BIC: GENODEM1GLS | Imprint. This led an IMF wit some years ago to … Year of publication: 2009 Post-Keynesian economics is a school of economic thought with its origins in The General Theory of John Maynard Keynes, with subsequent development influenced to a large degree by Michał Kalecki, Joan Robinson, Nicholas Kaldor, Sidney Weintraub, Paul Davidson, Piero Sraffa and Jan Kregel. Another field of advancement is agent-based modelling to understand how the complex interactions on the microeconomic level can affect macroeconomic outcomes. Income inequality, for instance, may enter a PK aggregate consumption function based on empirical studies about consumption behaviour showing that rich households have a lower propensity to consume or that poorer households try to adjust their consumption behaviour to the next higher social income class. With the historical event of the Global Financial Crisis (GFC), the interest in Hyman Minsky’s financial instability hypothesis was renewed, in an attempt to better understand the complex connection of the real and the financial sector and the tendency for crises. New credit money is created to finance investment expenditures. It is defined by the view that the principle of effective demand as developed by J. M. Keynes in the General Theory (1936) and M. Kalecki (1933) holds in the short, as well as in the long run. Collectivism vs. Individualism. Subscribe to our newsletter to learn about new debates, conferences and writing workshops. workers, capitalists, rentiers), that determine to a large extent the economic behaviour of economic agents, social institutions (e.g. The influence of the Keynesian school and the success of Keynesian policies in practice led the post-war period until the early '70s to be referred to as, alternately, the "Golden Age of Capitalism" and "The Golden Age of Keynesianism". If Piketty's main theoretical prediction (r > g leads to rising wealth inequality) is taken to its radical conclusion, then a small elite will own all wealth if capitalism is left to its own devices. Summarising what has been mentioned above, PKE and mainstream economics differ regarding their epistemology and ontology, their understanding of rationality, their methods, and their economic and political core. Second, effective demand drives the economy in the short as well as in the long-run. IPE Working Paper No. First, that monetary variables are essential to the understanding of the economy. Hein, E. (2014): Distribution and Growth after Keynes: A Post-Keynesian Guide, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. This project is brought to you by the Network for Pluralist Economics (Netzwerk Plurale Ökonomik e.V.). This way of thinking led to the discovery of several macroeconomic paradoxes. Dynamic models look at the change of economic variables over time and investigate the stability or instability of certain variables in the steady state, e.g. Post-Keynesians regard the New Keynesian approach as mainly neoclassical with some alterations that lead to market imperfections, but which do not improve their analysis of the real world. Rather, PKE states what needs to be achieved at the macroeconomic level in order to avoid the instabilities and/or persistent structural weaknesses related to capitalism. Year of publication: 2012 This monetary circuit establishes not only a circular flow of income between the main sectors of the economy, but also links economic units like households, firms or governments, to each other over time through their asset and liability structure. The Marxian idea of a tendency of the rate of profit to fall is another weakness. The economic core of mainstream economics is scarcity of resources, namely capital and labour. In this view sensible behaviour by individuals on the micro level can lead to unintended consequences on the macro level (see the paradoxes above for examples). Models that succeed in describing and explaining empirical phenomena and whose assumptions do not contradict basic observations about actual regular economic events may not be regarded as strictly true, but certainly ‘truer’ than models that do not correctly explain actual causal mechanisms or that are based on assumptions that do not adequately reflect our experience of everyday economic activity and events. Although such institutional analyses are based on specific empirical cases and typically do not involve formalisation, they often do provide more general conclusions about economic behaviour and events. (ed.) But it does mean making use of the market to achieve democratically decided social goals rather than … All approaches used in these essays are associated with the … [7], The theoretical foundation of post-Keynesian economics is the principle of effective demand, that demand matters in the long as well as the short run, so that a competitive market economy has no natural or automatic tendency towards full employment. Therefore, empirical regularities can change as well, so that economic theories cannot be regarded as universal laws. Robinson, Paul Davidson and Hyman Minsky emphasized the effects on the economy of practical differences between different types of investments, in contrast to Keynes' more abstract treatment. Kaldorians mainly focus on long-run growth, and highlight the constraints that open economies have to face regarding growth and how economic structure matters for development. While post-Keynesians do believe that capitalist economies exhibit certain regularities that are generated by causal mechanisms and that can be captured by economic theories, they conceive of the economy as a dynamic system that is subject to a permanent change in historical time. On the microeconomic level, PKE stresses that the future is fundamentally uncertain. Correspondingly, PKE provides a rich set of policy proposals which often differ considerably from standard recipes offered by mainstream economics. [15] The writings of Piero Sraffa were a significant influence on the post-Keynesian position in this debate, though Sraffa and his neo-Ricardian followers drew more inspiration from David Ricardo than Keynes. If everyone reading this gave a small amount, we could keep Exploring Economics thriving for years to come - but 99% of our users don't give. [8] Contrary to the views of new Keynesian economists working in the neoclassical tradition, post-Keynesians do not accept that the theoretical basis of the market's failure to provide full employment is rigid or sticky prices or wages. Each of these strands continues to see further development by later generations of economists. Regular or one-off donations would be greatly appreciated. Keynes: The Instability of Capitalism (Post Keynesian economics) [Vicarelli, Fausto] on Amazon.com. You can also suggest material yourself! *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Expectations of economic agents are influenced by social conventions and rules of thumb due to fundamental uncertainty about the future. For example, if the real wage target of workers or unions is in conflict with the profit target of firms, firms will partly pass through increases in nominal wages to prices, which will lead to inflation if the firms have price setting power. The money spent on investment appears as income in the deposit accounts of other entrepreneurs or households. This shapes their view of the economy being in abundance. Its most important analytical feature is the integration of behavioural equations derived from PK theory into a framework of rigorous accounting rules (note, however, that the SFC framework is not bound to one specific school of thought). Then, economic output and employment is determined in the goods market according to the level of investment demand. From a post-Keynesian perspective, the principal sequence associated with the processes at work in modern capitalism is regarded as finance investment saving. Therefore, the SFC framework ensures that all real and financial flows and stocks of the respective model are comprehensively integrated and can be traced back to their origin. Lastly, all Post-Keynesians stress the importance of fundamental uncertainty in the economy and that capitalism is driven by the “animal spirits”. Spain: University of the Basque Country, Bilbao. This conflict is caused by conflicting claims over the distribution of income between the main social classes, wage-earners in different industries or sectors, entrepreneurs and rentiers (i.e. firms, central banks, governments). The Institutionalists encompass authors that look at the institutional setting of the economy. Historian Robert Skidelsky argues that the post-Keynesian school has remained closest to the spirit of Keynes' original work. However, the focus on environmental constraints has received a lot more attention in recent years. This research area employs increasingly complex models with non-linear dynamics that often require computer techniques to numerically simulate different possible solutions to the model. For example, many post-Keynesians argue that a more even distribution of income between capitalists and workers will boost aggregate demand and growth and can therefore result in increasing the gross profits of the capitalist class. Post-Keynesian is not Necessarily Modern Monetary Theory (MMT) Cullen Roche - 06/05/2013 11/06/2015 I am going to wade into the dark waters of MMT once again here, but only because this is a very important point. More concretely, important social structures are social classes (e.g. While some PK economists dislike the econometric approach because of their scepticism towards universal regularities, it seems that the majority of researchers embraces econometric work. These models give an insight into the sometimes chaotic adjustment processes that happen in the real world and thus have a very different flavour than the tranquil and harmonious mainstream general equilibrium models. The other mainstream theory of explaining how the subjects react is neoclassical economics. There are different areas of debates and analyses that PK research has concentrated on. 186-195. Post-Keynesians typically reject the IS–LM model of John Hicks, which is very influential in neo-Keynesian economics, because they argue endogenous bank lending to be more significant than central banks' money supply for the interest rate.[9]. The term paradox in this context means that what might seem reasonable for one single person, firm or state can lead to unintended, adverse or even irrational collective behaviour and outcomes when all individuals, firms or states act in a similar way. PKE rejects the methodological individualism that underlies much of mainstream economics. Post-Keynesian theory offers a wide set of feasible policy instruments. In the Discover section we have collected hundreds of videos, texts and podcasts on economic topics. Accordingly, post-Keynesians advocate for methodological holism. money and households in a capitalist economy a gendered post keynesian institutional analysis Sep 30, 2020 Posted By James Michener Ltd TEXT ID b93a64a3 Online PDF Ebook Epub Library distinctive combination of post keynesian institutional getting the books money and households in a capitalist economy a gendered post keynesian institutional analysis Importantly, most PK economists reject the Marxian labour theory of value or at least regard it as a rather useless concept. It says the free market allows the laws of supply and demand to self-regulate the business cycle. In terms of monetary policy, it should be clear that the Loanable Funds Theory is rejected. Ecological Economics (121), pp. As a theoretician, his most important contribution was to destroy the old laissez-faire dogmas after the First World War and during the Depression of the 1930s. Rules of thumb are also very much influenced by social conventions and norms, which can lead to stability (e.g. Karl Marx in volume one of Capital (1867) discussed the tendency for greater centralization and concentration of capital. However, even in the early years, post-Keynesians such as Joan Robinson sought to distance themselves from Keynes and much current post-Keynesian thought cannot be found in Keynes.
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