Though short, for some reason it remains one of my favorite articles that ran in print PRINT. Once the designer is satisfied they understand the meaning of the project, they can move on to researching an appropriate 'syntax' for the design, a visual grammar, the set of design elements most suitable for the task at hand. Truly a design pioneer. Creative Bloq is part of Future plc, an international media group and leading digital publisher. We despise the culture of obsolescence, the culture of waste, the cult of the ephemeral. It was during his tenure at Unimark that some of Vignelli’s most iconic and enduring designs were realized, Unimark’s numerous clients including American Airlines, Knoll, JC Penney, Ford and The National Parks Service. In 1971, Massimo resigned from Unimark and went on to establish Vignelli Associates alongside Lella. Please refresh the page and try again. The pursuit of intellectual elegance invests design with a timeless quality: We are for a Design that lasts, that responds to people’s needs and to people's wants. Massimo Vignelli was an Italian designer who worked in a number of areas ranging from package design through houseware design and furniture design to public signage and showroom design. Located in. Simple use of whitespace. We detest the demand of temporary solutions, the waste of energies and capital for the sake of novelty. In the mid 1960s, Vignelli emigrated to the United States, where he would eventually find permanent residence with his wife, Lella in New York City. Lauren’s Spare Room Makeover: The Reveal. It elevates the most humble artifact to a noble stand. And there is nothing wrong with that. my design philosophy. Massimo. Cyber Monday TV deals: Get a 50-inch Samsung TV for just $299! His use of type was similarly severe. Vignelli, along with other leading 20th century designers such as Josef Müller-Brockmann and Paul Rand, with whom much of his career overlapped, made a significant contribution to that process of professionalisation. England and Wales company registration number 2008885. Vignelli also designed the Bloomingdale’s shopping bags and the interior of St. Peter’s Church. Correct definition of the project's semantics and syntax creates a framework within which the designer can exercise his imagination to develop an 'appropriate' design. "Design discipline is above and beyond any style" Vignelli believed these principles - semantics, syntax and appropriateness - should be applied to all projects across every field of design, whether the subject be the layout of a business card or the architecture of a skyscraper. Massimo Vignelli Style Plastic Cube Lounge Chairs, 1970s $495 $995. Jun 26, 2019 - Explore 克里 姆王's board "Massimo Vignelli", followed by 118 people on Pinterest. Again, it is not a design style, but the deepest meaning and the essence of Design. The designer's satisfaction consists in a thorough realisation of the project's objectives, not the expression of a personal need. Massimo acts as Brandpad's mascot. The 1972 Diagram for The New York City Subway System. It is unfortunate that design is so often represented as a 'creative' field without qualification of what the word 'creative' means in this context. Read more about this design icon here. The answer, I think, is not to reconceive design as an artistic endeavour, to bend the boundaries of what good design practice permits so as to allow for the exercise of subjectivity. This helped give his designs clarity and directness: Visual strength is an expression of intellectual elegance and should never be confused with just visual impact - which, most of the time, is just an expression of visual vulgarity and obtrusiveness. Vignelli, together with his wife and lifelong design partner Lella, and the generations of gifted designers who worked at his New York agency Vignelli Associates, produced many of the most iconic designs of the past 50 years, defining visual identities for the New York City subway, IBM, American Airlines and the US National Parks Service. Simple typography. He can be used as help towards users, or visual flair to otherwise clean designs. The manual describes the design and construction for the iconic NYC subway signs that we still see and use today, but above all it’s a … But others will find that design, as conceived by Vignelli, is not a sufficiently broad channel for all that they might want to express. Home; ... 1970s Italian Marble Travertine Metafora Coffee Table by Lella Massimo Vignelli. Nowhere is this expressed more clearly than in his Stendig calendar of 1966, which the Museum of Modern art quickly purchased for its design collection. A long-held belief amongst design enthusiasts is that the best design is design that becomes invisible—design that is simple and doesn’t announce its presence, but coexists harmoniously with the world, performing its function with understated beauty. For me, intellectual elegance is the sublime level of intelligence which has produced all the masterpieces in the history of mankind. He was celebrated for his teaching as well as his work. He designed graphic systems that had, and still have today, a tangible utility for millions of people everyday, thanks to his determination in basing the design on a true understanding of the users’s real needs. Some designers, like Vignelli, will find design an all-consuming passion. perfect condition of the marble elements. For many of us design will provide professional satisfaction, but no more and no less than that. The web emerged too late in his career to allow him to make a direct contribution to the medium, but the design principles that guided his work have had a profound impact upon the processes and aesthetics of both traditional and digital design. Design is not merely an intellectual process, it is a moral discipline. It is the perfect match of new 'out of the box' designs that in the same time follow your companies identity and language. The high seriousness with which Vignelli pursued his craft is characteristic of the modernist movement that suffused the 20th century. That is the magic of the grid. The best drawing tablet 2020: Our pick of the best graphics tablets. Love the illustrations. © Design*Sponge LLC, 2007-2020. For the professional designer creativity can only come into play within the grid of possibilities established through completion of the first two stages in the design process. Imbued with the personality of the designer too. I went in expecting an intimidating figure, but Massimo was kind, open and patient with all of his students; an exceedingly charming man with no sense of pretense. It is the definitive goal of our minds - the one beyond compromises. Above: The trailer for “Design Is One,” the 2012 documentary about the life and work of Massimo and Lella Vignelli. The pursuit of 'intellectual elegance' requires that the designer overcome the constant temptation to reinterpret design as a channel for self-expression, to follow fashion, to try out new techniques unsuitable for the task at hand. Introduction Massimo Vignelli is one of the most important protagonists in the history of design, and graphic design in particular. In 1965, modernist graphic designer Massimo Vignelli and his business partner Bob Noorda landed stateside, and established Unimark International, a new design consultancy, in New York. BA1 1UA. All style requires discipline in order to be expressed. For modernists in every field - design, literature, art, music and architecture - the collapse of traditional religious belief left a vacuum that human culture had to fill. One of the most well-known designers to popularize the “grid” technique of graphic design, the idea of structure informed much of his life’s work. Vignelli believed that design should be functional above all, following a strict stylistic guideline of grid marks, primary colors and typographic classics. Great design is born of those two things.”– Lindon Leader. Receive mail from us on behalf of our trusted partners or sponsors? Justin Reynolds examines the legacy of the late designer and the lessons we can learn from him. What I didn’t know is that he was such a nice and kind person, thank you Max for sharing your story with us, it is always a pleasure to hear that such a talented person could remain simple at heart. You will receive a verification email shortly. Vignelli's work is characterised by great simplicity, exhibiting something of the purity of religious symbolism: think Orthodox icons, the severity of Reformed church architecture, and the austere spaces of Gothic cathedrals. It's revealing that his writing always refers to 'Design' with a capital 'D'. For Vignelli the design process must at all times exemplify painstaking clarity of thought: successful design is the physical manifestation of an ideal he referred to as 'intellectual elegance', which his Canon describes in the most exalted tones: We often talk about Intellectual Elegance, not to be confused with the elegance of manners and mores. We should not be deceived by the sentimental, and sadly prevalent, contemporary notion that design is set apart from other professions as a field in which 'creatives' can follow their 'passion'. i'm tessa! A cultural pollution of incomparable dimension. Rather, designers for whom design, so to speak, is not enough, need not give up design, but make sure they have other creative outlets, such as art, illustration, painting, music, or writing. The use of horizontal rules to further demarcate the ordering of content was a particular characteristic of his work. As I said, at the time, if all people doing desktop publishing were doctors we would all be dead! Thank you! Those principles were developed during the golden age of 20th century modernist design, the decades following World War II when the systematic approach to graphic design pioneered during the 1920s and '30s by movements such as the Bauhaus, Constructivism and de Stilj was refined into a rigorous set of maxims and processes suitable for day-to-day commercial work. Creative Bloq Staff Massimo is a tribute to Massimo Vignelli—the godfather of the one of the most successful manifesto’s in the history of graphic design. Clockwise from top left: Perpetual Wall Calendar; the Bloomingdale’s logo; Heller Dinnerware Set; Handkerchief Chair; The 1972 Diagram for The New York City Subway System; Acme Stiletto Pen; the Ford Motor Company logo; Long Index Watch; The Vignelli Canon, Vignelli’s 2010 design manifesto. (Computer Arts) 06 June 2014. Justin Reynolds is a web designer, blogger and copywriter based in Edinburgh, Scotland. One got the feeling that he was right at home in this setting, despite being miles from his Italian birthplace—a teacher at heart, he was where he belonged. Massimo Vignelli’s A Few Basic Typefaces Vignelli presented his (now famous) type philosophy at an SVA exhibition in 1991, revisiting it 20 years later for his … License. I … —Max. Vignelli welcolmed the design possibilities afforded by new technology, but lamented the proliferation of redundant typefaces made possible by the accessibility of type design software: The advent of the computer generated the phenomena called desktop publishing. As he put it, 'Design is one': This was so interesting. Simple photography. See more ideas about Massimo vignelli, Vignelli, Vignelli design. His… Despite his adherence to a rigid design structure and a severe color palette, Massimo Vignelli’s personal demeanor was one of immense humor, vitality, wit and warmth. Editor ’ s Note: When we were working on PRINT ’s 75th anniversary issue in 2015, I approached Milton Glaser to kick off a new column— “ Love Letters, ” in which one designer riffed on another in epistolary form. Thank you for signing up to Creative Bloq. Of its very nature design cannot serve as a vehicle for subjective expression. Good design is a language, not a style." Intellectual elegance is also our civic consciousness, our social responsibility, our sense of decency, our way of conceiving Design, our moral imperative. See more ideas about Massimo vignelli, Vignelli, Typography design. Sign up below to get the latest from Creative Bloq, plus exclusive special offers, direct to your inbox! Vignelli's example teaches us what we should expect from design, and what we should not, and the satisfaction and sacrifice involved in doing it well. Vignelli believed these principles - semantics, syntax and appropriateness - should be applied to all projects across every field of design, whether the subject be the layout of a business card or the architecture of a skyscraper. RIP Massimo Vignelli. Good design is a language, not a style.” Massimo Vignelli . In that sense, perhaps, he was rather unusual. Nothing could be more wrong! Good design is never boring, only bad design is. Diane Nelson Interiors LLC serving Southeastern Wisconsin, is a full service interior design firm based in Wauwatosa, Wisconsin. Thanks for sharing! Understood correctly, the creativity that designers exercise is constrained, channelled within the parameters set by the task at hand. His ethos was, "If you can design one thing, you can design everything," and this was reflected in the broad range of his work. Future Publishing Limited Quay House, The Ambury, everyone has a desire to create, and that desire manifests itself uniquely for each person. Category 1970s Italian Mid-Century Modern Vintage Massimo and Lella Vignelli Coffee and Cocktail Tables Marble Black and White Coffee Table by Lella and Massimo Vignelli 1979 Italy. All of his designs make disciplined use of the grid, organising content into modules created by the interplay of rows and columns. MASSIMO VIGNELLI A true modernist, Vignelli is widely credited for bringing European Modernism to the United States. Oct 4, 2016 - Explore Fong Chun's board "massimo vignelli" on Pinterest. Some of his most iconic designs follow this philosophy to a tee—from the graphic program for the National Parks Service to his comprehensive design for the New York City subway system. Vignelli went so far as to arrange an exhibition demonstrating the range of work his agency had been able to undertake using only four typefaces: Garamond, Bodoni, Century Expanded, and Helvetica. Take your photos to the next level with Luminar AI’s Templates, The best tablets with a stylus pen for drawing and note-taking in 2020, 4 reasons why creatives need a pen display tablet, Cyber Monday Amazon deals: The best offers on TVs, laptops and more. All rights reserved. It is the elegance we find in Greek statues, in Renaissance paintings, in the sublime writings of Goethe, and many great creative minds. Vignelli's work is eminently accessible. Martinelli Luce Metafora 1979 table by Lella and Massimo Vignelli Poetic simplicity, symbolic of shapes, this table is a timeless icon. Beautiful Set of Four Heller 4" clear glass bakeware (inside bowl measurement) glass ramekins for condiments, individual casseroles, souffle or custards. The principles and characteristics of which are evident throughout all of his design work, from graphic design and architecture to product design. Putting superfluous, ostentatious design on the same level as heinous criminal activity, he strived to create objects and visual programs that were universal—easily understood and free of artistic ego. © -massimo vignelli. Vignelli believed that graphic design was not an outlet for personal style or beauty, but that all graphic design should be “the forensic application of the guiding principles of design to every project, large or small.” There is a place for personal style and beauty in such outlets as … Vignelli often used just one typeface for each design, and often simplified matters even further by avoiding use of italics and bold, relying instead on gradations of scale to establish typographic hierarchy. Vignelli was very clearly influenced by the clean, minimalistic elegance of the modernist and swiss style graphic design. There is nothing mysterious about it. (Michael Bierut, a Vignelli protégé, testifies to his mentor's kindness and encouragement in a moving tribute written for Design Observer.) London, London. In 1960, together with his wife Lella Vignelli, he established the Vignelli Office of Design and Architecture in Milan. The body of design theory and best practice formulated by the modernists continues to serve as bedrock knowledge for today's designers. Massimo Vignelli and his partner in life and in design, Lella Vignelli, are both Italians who have pursued much of their careers in the United States, while maintaining strong ties to Europe. He established his own firm, Vignelli Associates, in partnership with his wife. The pursuit of excellence took the place of the worship of God. The designer's first objective when beginning a new project, says Vignelli, is to attain a clear understanding of the 'semantics' of the task before her: the designer must take time to understand the nature of the client and their audience, and how the subject of the design will relate to sender and receiver in such as way as to make sense to both. That is the whole point of the modernist design process: to move design from the cloudy subjective realm of inspiration to the well-lit objective world of documented repeatable process. Design discipline is above and beyond any style. Glaser responded with a piece about Massimo Vignelli, who had recently died. Design is a discipline, a creative process with its own rules, controlling the consistency of its output toward its objective in the most direct and expressive way. "Styles come and go. This formed the basis for what would be The Vignelli Center for Design Studies, a multi-functional space on the campus that contains galleries, study spaces and classrooms, all aimed at educating young students of design. Vignelli's graphic design work has a deceptive simplicity. learn more about me! The first half of the book, with sets out Vignelli's fundamental design principles in no more than 40 pages, is one of the clearest guides to the modernist design aesthetic available anywhere. We are for a Design that is committed to a society that demands long lasting values. In collaboration with his wife Lella, the Italian designer established now-familiar corporate identities for companies such as American … They have a wide rim around the top of the bowl so they measure about 6 1/4" across the top. It was with an extremely heavy heart that we learned of Massimo’s passing this week. The computer allowed anybody to design new typefaces and that became one of the biggest visual pollution of all times. L & M Vignelli, they are made in the U.S.A. He worked in several domains of designing including package design, furniture design, showroom design and warehouse design. Massimo Vignelli, Italian designer At the age of 83, he had lived what seems like ten lifetimes, leaving behind a legacy that will continue to inspire, inform, and change the world. To Vignelli, beauty could be found in the details—ease of use, legibility, simplicity—not excessive or needlessly expressive ornamentation. Though he was a man of great personal warmth and humour, Vignelli's conception of the nature and practice of design was austere. Learn more, By Designed by 1970's Modernist Lella and Massimo Vignelli. Cyber Monday deals: see all the best offers right now! A great designer, his works will remain with us forever because of their simplicity and beauty, like the perpetual wall calendar and the handkerchief chair. Very often people think that Design is a particular style. (Helvetica, that cleanest-of-clean Swiss typefaces, was his hallmark, and he depended upon it even as it went somewhat out of style, then came roaring back in.) Must-see Cyber Monday monitor deals: 24-inch Samsung monitor now just $90! There are ways to achieve all this that are correct, as there are others that are incorrect, and should be avoided. That would be to misunderstand the kind of discipline it is. A society that earns the benefit of commodities and deserves respect and integrity. All rights reserved. It is the thread that guides us to the best solution of whatever we do. Creative Bloq is supported by its audience. El célebre diseñador Massimo Vignelli, conocido por su mayor creación, el mapa del metro de la ciudad de New York, y el logotipo de American Airlines, entre otros muchos diseños, murió el pasado 27 de mayo de 2014, con 83.Según fuentes familiares, murió a causa de una grave enfermedad, tras luchar durante largo tiempo. He makes careful use of asymmetry and whitespace to invest his designs with tension and dynamism. The obsessive, exalted terms in which Vignelli refers to design demonstrates his acute understanding of the self-sacrifice that good design requires. wonderful article. His canon overflows with characteristic enthusiasm for the creative possibilities afforded by the grid: for Vignelli, whitespace evokes the great open spaces of the American landscape, and gridlines are redolent of musical notation: It is just like in music, where five lines and seven notes allow one to make infinite compositions. Each year, up until last summer, students from around the world were able to visit the center to study underneath Massimo himself for a week-long graphic design workshop. It is the elegance of Architecture of any period, the Music of all times, the clarity of Science through the ages. MASSIMO VIGNELLI (1931-2014) A true modernist, Vignelli is widely credited for bringing European Modernism to the United States. Massimo Vignelli Massimo was born in the country of Italy in 1931 , He has done work in a number of areas of design ranging from package and furniture design to public signage and also showroom design through Vignelli Associates a company co-founded with his wife Lella Vignelli in 1971. Visit our corporate site. Massimo Vignelli Massimo Vignelli was a celebrated twentieth century versatile Italian graphic and industrial designer. Or, how type sizes relate to each other. “Massimo Vignelli was always true to his style and followed it despite fashion and aesthetic changes. I didn’t know that Massimo Vignelli was the one person behind all these iconic designs. Good design is a language, not a style.” –Massimo Vignelli “The urge for good design is the same as the urge to go on living”–Harry Bertoia “I strive for two things in design: simplicity and clarity. i'm a graphic designer based in northwest arkansas. Above: Illustrator Libby VanderPloeg’s interpretation of Massimo Vignelli’s Stendig Calendar. The designer's ultimate objective is not the pursuit of beauty, self-expression or wealth, but rather the forensic application of the guiding principles of design to every project, large or small. Vignelli was influenced by the work of the Bauhaus school, Vignell's shares his design principles in The Vignelli Canon, Designers need to define a 'syntax' for the design - a set of design elements most suitable for the task at hand - says Vignelli, "Design discipline is above and beyond any style", Elegance " is not a design style, but the deepest meaning and the essence of Design", The intensity of Vignelli's commitment to design had a religious quality, For Vignelli, gridlines are redolent of musical notation. I had the pleasure of attending in 2012 and the experience was absolutely unforgettable. not a style." It is entirely to be expected that many designers will be creative types who will experience keenly the limitations that professional design imposes on their scope for free expression. And they would be right. The designer, unlike the artist, does not begin with a blank canvas. Any designer might think: "I could do that.". my design is about bringing people joy. Let us continue the design language of your company with fresh designs. Bath This enabled anyone who could type the freedom of using any available typeface and do any kind of distortion. Although Vignelli is probably most famous for his work in graphic design, his architectural training appears to have had a massive influence on his overall design sensibilities. Its function is to meet the common interest of all parties: the client, their audience, and wider society. Glass Coffee Table with Marble Sculptural Bases in the Style of Massimo Vignelli. That is why his work is timeless.” “The exhibition includes original artworks from Vignelli, handwritten drafts that Massimo developed for brands like Ducati and Poltrona Frau. Great post on a great designer! For him, design was an severe, ascetic discipline, demanding self-denial and humility. Vignelli's design methodology is well documented in many interviews, articles, books and videos, but is summarised with particular clarity in The Vignelli Canon, a short book he wrote towards the end of his career which with typical generosity he made available as a free PDF download. He favoured the use of strong imagery and bold colour schemes, often restricting himself to the use of the primary colours, blue, red and yellow. Good design is a language, not a style.” –Massimo Vignelli. His graphic design is of particular interest to digital designers, exhibiting a particularly pure expression of the modernist typographic principles that inform professional online design. in 1971 they formed Vignelli Associates, and in 1978, Vignelli Designs. The author of numerous books and manifestos on design, Vignelli was as much a teacher as he was a design practitioner, deeply invested in the notions of education, social improvement and sharing. Massimo Vignelli An Italian, Massimo was born in Milan in 1931. It was there that he first studied art and architecture, until he came to America in 1957. By Massimo and Lella Vignelli. The NYCTA Graphics Standards Manual contains scans of Massimo Vignelli and Bob Noorda’s (Unimark) modernist masterpiece. Incredible how he has shaped our environment and our own sense of design. Vignelli was a great designer because he understood the ascetic nature of design, and loved it for that very reason. I enjoyed reading your article and feel it was imbued with the personality of the designer. Good design has a moral dimension. As he put it, 'Design is one': The discipline of Design is one and can be applied to many different subjects, regardless of style. Which means Vignelli's legacy is of fundamental importance to all designers. Massimo Vignelli (1931-2014), who died last week, was one of the great designers of the 20th century. Are you looking for designs customised for your company? Vignelli's understanding of the nature of design is surely right: it is a pragmatic, technical pursuit, not an artistic one. His work applied the principles he had learned from his forebears and peers with uncompromising rigour, and his teaching in turn refined and extended them further. His work extended beyond graphic design to encompass consumer products, furniture, clothing, architecture and even the interior of a church. Please deactivate your ad blocker in order to see our subscription offer. Receive news and offers from our other brands? He was an advocate of functionality in design, basing his creations on real user needs. And that, like many designers of his generation, he dressed simply, often in black, an austere uniform somewhat evocative of the monk's habit. He was an advocate of functionality in design, favouring a minimalist aesthetic and basing his creations on real user needs Throughout his career, Vignelli refused to adhere to … It was a disaster of mega proportions. Or, how pictures relate to each other and how the parts relate to the whole. Like him, they will be entranced precisely because of the discipline it demands, the purity of intention it requires. There was a problem. Simple grids. His aesthetic was minimalist, often employing simple geometrical shapes. Massimo Vignelli shaped the visual landscape of mid-century America and created designs that we continue to encounter to this day. But the example of Vignelli's life and work also serves to demonstrate that knowledge of sound design principles is not enough. Typefaces experienced an incredible explosion. For Vignelli this austere discipline was a wholly absorbing life-long pursuit: even the most humdrum project is fulfilling if it follows the correct process: I strongly believe that design should never be boring, but I don't think it should be a form of entertainment. The design world is abuzz with memories of the Italian-born, New York City-based Vignelli. When designer Massimo Vignelli’s redesigned New York City subway map appeared in 1972, people were less than enthusiastic. 29.5ʺW × 25ʺD × 26.5ʺH South Bend, IN Accent Chairs > Lounge Chairs "Tessuto" Large Form Venini Lamp, Italy 1970s $1,800. Despite his adherence to a rigid design structure and a severe color palette, Massimo Vignelli’s personal demeanor was one of immense humor, vitality, wit and warmth. The International Style is also a manifesto Brandpad practices on a daily basis. In 1966, he helped to found Unimark International, a Chicago-based design firm that was, at the time, one of the world’s largest and most well known. Massimo Vignelli studied architecture at the Politecnico di Milano from 1950 to 1953 and later trained at the Universita di Architetttura, Venice. Above: A sampling of just a few designs from Vignelli’s prolific career. When you purchase through links on our site, we may earn an affiliate commission. If there is any single designer for whom this value holds the most truth, it is the late, insurmountably great Massimo Vignelli. And - famously - he used only a handful of typefaces through his entire career. Although Vignelli originally went into the field of architecture, studying at both the Polytechnic University of Milan and Universita di Architettura in Venice, he was an avid proponent of Adolf Loos’ belief that an architect could (and should) design anything from “a spoon to a city.” Vignelli himself was famous for saying, “if you can design one thing, you can design everything,” a philosophy he lived and designed by, his prolific career dotted with iconic graphic programs, object designs, logos, interiors and furniture. Vignelli, a true modernist, believed in radical simplicity and the grid as the ultimate basis of graphic design. NOTIFICATION OF LICENSE AGREEMENTThis typeface is the property of Monotype Imaging Inc. and its use by you is covered under the terms of a license agreement. Every aspect of his designs have been created in the full light of well established design principles that anyone can learn and implement. He was the co-founder of Vignelli Associates, with his wife, Lella. In Vignelli's words: The consistency of a design is provided by the appropriate relationship of the various syntactical elements of the project: how type relates to grids and images from page to page throughout the whole project. Vignelli died in New York yesterday morning, at the age of 83, and New York asked five designers and architects to choose and discuss their favorite pieces from his canon. Everything is transparent, out in the open. I always enjoy your writing. 12ʺW × 12ʺD × 22ʺL Hillsdale, NY Lighting > Table Lamps Vintage Hellerware Dishes by Massimo Vignelli - … Born in Milan in 1931, Vignelli displayed an interest and aptitude for design at a preternaturally young age. In 2008, Massimo and Lella donated their entire archive of design work to The Rochester Institute of Technology in Rochester, NY. The intensity of Vignelli's commitment to design had a religious quality, his pursuit of 'intellectual elegance' bearing comparison with the believer's pursuit of God. For Vignelli, all of that is 'vulgarity': We are definitively against any fashion of design and any design fashion.
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