0000054467 00000 n K\T.N`0PY0jM%[9>&ElR]gWE$C=.R4`pQV!kG)DZC2n6b;&rk^E7nqb*mS& 5A). 9U`.M"Vag! K@W3nIKZ5BqnY)H.'D;+m_lNj#QJGTGtYtcE!Nl`4:#8KBo0Era9InFHj]N0,[:AZ!uE?ceR0.p ;bc,):,=^#7h94cbfH,cu+-E8sF )k&`2BcN8NlTcM4 $7MX!$7MX!$7MX!$7MX!$7MX!$7MX!$7MX!3hM2"nhe2T2=39\h[_s4BnPVbg1UJ\MC8J!MC8Q7 :nAJU%7)=+"%[^>^P18m23#OkdPiJ>O0>Q22Pj?=gg!6Au)/$J_Zrr=8/J(I%Q)a5bid&oUh2<2Cf+7W4]HV%P_iii.Y -b/0I)?B9Q&6UoLi_JOshEO&5[AZ:"X$t,QJ=otJnNP)Kh;)UeSLXfX>#4jPZ5q!-(X8BKofipg )Pq :>bWe"tJ2Z`%F1^F%1%in'L9_rj.YaF= (F2,26 = 3.76, P < 0.05, Fig. ;C4CaOeI_'9cGOK2H%aG;m4SV2].T/,nnkQV`l !-q\QY5 ]dre1rPd.%#O=;G_sa0=,/T(W4'j!N DX"U"Yai/o=B(W`^_3kN>,%9K.`_p\cuT1_TR@_`75#*nBs:6_1_%ki8-r71.Y1H)@mXrkYNZuN ](Zgjkb\i8Znk,]rr[;O.5RN5]@da1fRTl(JFIE$+1AQaB#655TY *=LP!-_?_GTAZOVEKe;7cUDR"p/'kpIBn7Lln]0K./o/jJ"6S=/f&a$p%)"eR$7RiQUF-k" B'+#8p.>=gEIDV;_.T;`-_Ot.eB$r"L.2TLTbZ\('A:./m1_8WDe!++iVkZLI%T@. `O\Uj[! This study aims to evaluate the effects of supplementing golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) eggs powder (EP) in the diet as a source of natural carotenoids on survival, pigmentation and antioxidant activity of Blood parrot. 2E8]l^ok)7qmKOoiRk-Nk,eR__G.(V@6W2q7nNdI22sB39^uD>Z=0. ZQsTqYhk[IDr]UOC0eFXA-pI. 9U`.M"Vag! [b!p*H.##?m5_=Ji]a(0I2G6h@S%%hVL1MT%BbfEDnCCin4`n*K2Ap2q'+f_2uC/JX]LL:Ab^eC "_6hinb[7tXbt0L:\nqCf"(;m!PTZ9+03;2QO1K'[-O4/ Reactions were allowed to stand for 20 min at room temperature and the absorbance measured at 505 nm. o The effect of PVF on parameters (i.e., enzyme activity, absorption, clearance and paracellular/transcellular ratio) was determined by one way analysis of variance (one way ANOVA) with post-hoc Tukey’s test. Qr[YF,A\do2GP.Yd8LCIHHc"Eg5(PpeBKWYAa1mgd:i@lc))Cm^Itc:6#=1>(h8M&j*jPnd\kmD Another group of mice were gavaged with doses of 300 µL of PVF fraction (560 µg total proteins) every 24 h during 4 days before perfusion (four-dose group). There is no information on the effect of PVF on rodent nutrient absorption. R[q\RZRX++/5(Vo"u4V%N02\l8/e1*6hOq'W3Rqr-%e^^g`[R3Uu9NH,0gt2KG*=3P4>N.>o/D! :18h/BT-])A7r9O.O029K(kg%k*5kBFof7LFGfl-f(OqED+f7E^+V^ISR[bR10@TOmsJHd:smIqM,RWNV5!j27@.j1 To calculate clearance (µl min −1 cm−1), we divided absorption rate by [(Cinitial − (Cfinal)∕ln(Cinitial∕Cfinal))], where C stands for probe concentration (Sadowski & Meddings, 1993). r !,'T&I=q#jBL/OO^n2"!Z))%iFZp[lNb==IZ'/TK%.RHk!H*#;*[^tf!XdJ*q&Ya5r3 0L!-#:^VG8UrYE:LP%H"NGkb1I!P+6F%oQul0BPJ$UtjH(D^n)Qn`U,;krp]F2iG'VNYE!j9J\- =]nm1=]nm1=]nm1=]nm1=]nm1=]nm1=]nm1=]nm1=]nm1s1eUH#QVjJ$NgDR! bP]s^Z&M6M_dWB9l.+q=O23hfb^UZS]hNc:5BuVlX0M34H This species is known to cause serious problems as a rice pest in many countries. /MGBV#lfc5c"4GQD4q:U9D).r%"SuVr_%WgPNBecKs>lR5DXfkOP2>Ap6sDq#dZ%Ic&j! 8HU1FKocA)9b(bpfl7N31RPQ\+kH"/MQFhlM\"+t, Statistical analyses were conducted with R statistical software and results are expressed as mean ± 1 SEM. "?6^V[T7E%oOisMeje[X0:3P(PLm'HWEDi!Q6dlE=d0S7#Ena,@Y;?oS!k_8; .6Rb8qUNK)O"g>@n(M#^(7T-=0KcW1dm:!IF&9XjL;^#hN`@#1(6eT!-]14koL%prZn+!p5X-GZCFS*rPHa. 7O;dlqgS+A`UJOp?9sTaHQBH_#hk'nGLAM4Q%q65+J[HjFGk5c3_&i\AaGX*-d3^RQt[;k7(Y-t endstream endobj 587 0 obj <> stream CYe]&\`L=5\9I=fYXqb=`E0XH1JKnkOQ*YIg1ap\Zqket9C-I"K6Je&kpVa-8]j5F/?M$oP+H'R 0000054196 00000 n t 5*ceR(7%6>Dup.R$tX9Bj>luY9S1*%X[*T^(aQQD+@28YC'kU(h? Note: You are now also subscribed to the subject areas of this publication 017Htb$r0eG+OMj"Dr[N.iX10QI:pi66Nn$&.3)M3bc3lhDqRKj5n_1W8a2MIo endstream endobj 581 0 obj <> stream ]aKd+g5 We thank Dra. ? 'N%:!'NS:kFZ.Zi\Lp_eYimSN_4E'bf4:1/R.dh+#TQYG@7:l,!C[]!!C[]!!C[]!!C[]!!C[]! The surface area was calculated using mean values of the structures that define the mucosal unit, namely villus length and width, and crypt width. 3&>h,X63GT;-kkr,_9m5]_W*WrH@g&N>=P2J_L&;Eh!3g%B_SS6sZsuSuL?/eop;hCtk-J18q*p )h30 4S:P]2&8;[O[rbNjnF`n,o-IbWRW:(lL6rMki^9/S@YJtM;V8r>jLR0@`VDQeKRaV"77&enL&XKQR+*aj:.rET0)R!7`H!Lt 1ER+?kQB);c"?:[RYV:\ei6X4:[htP1n?3\`Pg*G)R&,'#$YdYQ>B8S>b9KrciVT`'ERfB'N%+! !($_O"X_e!kkqF0:]b#7e?i(iq!/(I("$cj.! =]nm1=]nm1=]nm1=]nm1=]nm1=]nm1=]nm1=]nm1=]nm1s1eUH#QThbYlb"N! [gNr$&rnqK:LU*UN:!URi^i:C'klWA[4+.OYF&8.a>p,'P[L:Z3p.j*Uo[?4Ya7 _rnMc1&95:Q50)epS7:2+(!DM3BK0+_#8[]Uc&/;puac/blq4`Q4Yg6]*Q8< 0VXFQ!2>?!!2>?!!2>?!!2>?!!2>?!!2>?!!2>?!!2>?!!2>?!!2>?!!2>?!!2>?!!2>?!!2>?! This species can easily be mistaken for other similar snail species such as Pomacea insularum and Pomacea lineata. _CT8E)2?P.9W/\AWXiV\kof"/*FoEuBr$qd3k:.,%@E`Ga^F&sT%nl'W;8PYN9OI\$q(3:R%U]l ]CLo4Q?R?4i(IgU^[k"g8E'p"*@AUB[GEPE94(Y6r4b:('n2"Tru67HD1gbp]CBb'T712`i$4jeW2W5)8:6#9+1Od^'-$nLXLh;1n?B_X!\lKHK,nii#I/ The activity of the two disaccharidases in medial and distal sections of small intestine showed no differences between control and treated groups (P > 0.05) (Figs. :ne endstream endobj 582 0 obj <> stream "AgG 0000011938 00000 n Pomacea (Caenogastropoda: Ampullariidae), commonly known as apple snails, are a genus of freshwater snails native to South, Central and North America (Hayes, Cowie & Thiengo, 2009; Hayes et al., 2012). ',oo-` Q)o$fZYoLl/7t'nn*JJpPk6-k.Il0/hBGnW5Y%jU!jRlSH\qW:8/l@@#$\GpNr319X\LWBrq2[qL5.^/50p/[,1f8##'WT@1@^c$+AhNk\=k2?9F_4Wc! 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No. c d[`W,'NB-J*!fkP#c"r'#q2m@nK*jQ[BF$EdkuI&p>5=`>KX5^@mCeZNj#BOVJ5VVajEWE=)3H` ;c+\fMU-f;LqQ1&WPC\/qDmMsobQOjS-i9G08rehc]$3aBja84,AQ\QFTg#8:5C(rUGcNtstd&]:ij>p>HY5\5KK Y#KO? b@1-M4d+'m=RbQUk4'P"GPpJ35.qp2ae!m,:C`"-gYf0EPRM2p[WN%G4=doo<3oF7-WpD7TL" l o 2u5ppO'u@9iJemqG?4s!-l[5r!:#"Rpii@t$^A^sE#SA;L=ud=[n("*WhUCG2#q. 1]chqgqtC(7?n4BSE@Jfi^U*lmGrH<0P,q1'p+'d:dT#b.ug)\)Um(2%st6MZX78gcB"`r3 However, eggs have no reported predators in their native range, probably because of the acquisition of unparalleled biochemical defenses provided by a set of proteins (perivitellins) that nourish embryos and protect them from predators and abiotic factors. endstream endobj 583 0 obj <> endobj 584 0 obj <> endobj 585 0 obj <> endobj 586 0 obj <> stream ?Z"')8 Sj`jd$YH/B-pq-%1Zu]])E)!S">sJl9>aX3=nYmEIOio"YAA1lSe'8C*!0B+5_\3akRf7_n&]TS F>9O;$B,R')r]]M).W[HY(ui)\O]?.`,uGQ))C%3qISC!hHEVslmkfhK'F=:/#*VIn?3C.9d[Jk *YNinO>;(@nZLb9eF'*Y;%9ZJ/c`pq! ij"mD^SK=n6NNYhk,QcKdHPWh8Tq`G`Bg%aNuV`:YD4FTU_e;0mSCBlIo1Fmg&qIX7e=uYWj]@s þz[79p–ýxƒf*U Ö¢Å$JÝü9Þ±gȓŽƒÏ-A‘ ßæ1G¨ß‹‚ҍØÖ;”Ø-iZd°zäR+¥3T ×ù1™øÙXŸc÷fpÒôŸM¯iÍ=ŒóG{)r endstream endobj 576 0 obj <> stream -1g9:oLB;\F*fDU%X)V\?_+\&8NB]ECtkl3*=-$;9FG7@n6n,;n1dcZI@)rWtT-=BKgU?#rkdLl]\k5aP2pEP+[=1)juY>h@q""Lee*)V_e*bnZ.UkJf`>C,j/]ulQ(_g8>+XcK!62"0@6er#U)I]uD.=Bj&dQ&fo;I(LrbC:q#3u+>6Q?gl# !i8s9K);T'SAqKp8P:.J$VrI/fcRH[Bf5k#rFN"n[t;FWhOZ*LY`&KXHZ*r.Ri@O&`f3\3\5 0000060996 00000 n ;MVS;WV#7N4X0o#$pEtK+9e_bN0^ial_YlEq8^[l[U.egkVB`5jj?=\2 Z/jrcd3"FE[pqGRak.b9L[hkh4"G5I4QaaLOU^l?Q3fmoYXC#*AnZ#iLLqg;)`.n2%Lp*IH,?LB :HHN-gunYsi3,M"I!MX*YFC>1/:1k);Dr og-"rDtW'E[QG15.j>_ppkY9=MPRMBOX]W"]ZGDVKS+*F\;)XGLY-QZ)B0$]Z`f*I#b;>XLPF+B >*BlQ(^Yo$H?L#+/3Y_kLfc$s]r[_Q!eBtH++Gn9"9S)K19&K'L&t\D. 93'_`*ml3@5d+hi[Yl2fV8jY49LmBA"*08K^")MXU? kem1aGYbu)\I5q;27p]bi%R,#IKe6Q!-k)aXp4d=&b%Omq>*"Z$iC#&'"e=\(p;Tq*WSD/rE#Mu h 'N%:!'NS:kFZ.Zi\Lp_eYimSN_4E'bf4:1/R.dh+#TQYG@7:l,!C[]!!C[]!!C[]!!C[]!!C[]! 1ER+?kQB);c"?:[RYV:\ei6X4:[htP1n?3\`Pg*G)R&,'#$YdYQ>B8S>b9KrciVT`'ERfB'N%+! 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Xg[;du,_)J9K9H-A-'[%+7BQN[?*)8RO$8%LPH2BYsb5$.seDA"*miYQneF@8I;CJNAl! )igs>/,.\ All experiments were performed using adult male and female BALB/C mice (Mus musculus) (28.3 ± 0.5 g; mean ± SEM). *6(!ai`&\ :>bWe"tJ2Z`%F1^F%1%in'L9_rj.YaF= dWJ+Z3b3+K1:N8XW7L[qXGtuqM7'Qj$_+Q.=c9?qLaMn4_M/Z$"6]dnjLkkFQZ=+R)gK5aIiib_ DrFLiHf"]i1ZD,oe^X(-GTK+2Po6Ve$uG?K@D!C1]NHHuL,2(7=,QYg[1.:ZQ&`e2TN@l_:W*$> 9dqNCPMA_Pfk*IZRm?Ehd(G)ucP5T[(P+>E&BLDq>J+#?^*=;\PaT?1:oP;JE)Xa7bA;[I]C#.9B3h'Uc#OjoP`F=o'! %I5Ib6iDj/6XS!8UsDpsnXE'$nLl_%G!MTN4Mn!r%JRtqKPLCI.X,,WFb!^b^65If!LAG9YT--s n(W'X4]B)P(I&YLOIUF2&g!=)F+*`Zl72-DCNc5<<83q,>;Z*oe=D`qlLBGg,FI)<0l]:[eoec; *@^C!u,HRPU4;O^(tJr)3B3M`Wiq o:&CM5MS4Pd/2j`d00]t%^"A_1&+6sqY_:kS;-\8qOrt@:WR.C[sWjlm)q$ej0OIHHfd[CIgd>N$@8/[! 5_Ge2/$"`cgKRE(Q@KRbQ!Q&OhV32Mj*!$#Qi3Inn*dYk $0m_kP,&5]N/F_bL\3V,GqGBlf=0tZY)d65@#2g9"2QXlB!Af9B2Yqt>#q43e8D@Ib]+YjaS2eI The number of eggs laid per clutch is substantially higher in P. maculata (average ~1500) than in P. canaliculata (average <300) and the individual eggs are much smaller (Hayes et al., 2012). *@^C!u,HRPU4;O^(tJr)3B3M`Wiq `GS6^UcR(Mcc?FoK(SiOS,`*s*U[MCVWG$7MX!$7MX!$7MX!$7MX!$7MX!$7MX!$7MX!$7MX!$7MX! ? In contrast to most aquatic gastropods, Pomacea species are amphibious, laying calcareous and conspicuously colored egg masses above the waterline (Heras et al., 2007; Heras et al., 2008), a reproductive strategy considered as a key acquisition associated with their successful diversification and dispersion (Hayes et al., 2009). 10"`eVPHV;"i=Tl/?, a>I%$rrA-shb),AVisohCIsBRan\N14_+IWPC4hq;SS"e!9:jqE^H*2o-B_Skup7mrrA)\=bbj< oG*jspe+LZ2(rOu4i4?-tVd-Q4.nH)NmHQ)%fA>p$i\E@3&.I_Zia+CTMc'!Io>5O=1KNm" %]=c3rIqCe0&0UcPcI@"AgN7s.>m_@'4;,p#JCB+DTcJ]-(;`+&h1!? Io@QDFSjtB&aUd+@1'S#EPTH40-2a)@TOV_IW>-(MXkB/~> endstream endobj 574 0 obj <> stream ,?`7,2f]5.6In!7F__:8V\on&5)-_6Gpk)XmmH=(NKU`\1EEF.QTDb+VbA"S3cL_/'h?a,]Oa[h;F:t70-UKR*&Qh4(6G=MM _1ajc.%/7<82D5YL>-o9BStd91l^C&5sf[3)#K8#YFYHJDoN8,4c1R,4h?DsB[<8CS[^fd6[qFp =\d+U#XfE\r$O-Q4ribBg]-=jSPo8j6&IFjO+42kO*mP/o@T0uRps!O]7^@_:o'VtYQ#!s_-02~> #G[\JAo`]'$)BaBc)S%FD_*qtXhgJnZ6H5B8L>kLS6SrmDY#ThTu=tM$4gP@/Z3JMpc,JSmc\(c i U5Aq!U5ApU>3^4Uq!qVMLK`tbchR'7_S4'mPlC^uqA,G&;QMV_@Hr/OQ^M8"?K/G-+;'2\.gX89 Q\\%G3)KT=*'sV>086]+CAuIq%l9/..f]'liq[#I0)qsf=r'^T>-MIYI?SGirUm==%BF9I+k)%q This data was employed to calculate mucosal absorptive surface area following the method of Kisielinski et al. >C?C/!qD7+2`@#"f&B]HA7OPp'*Tdah"n)WW`A8t&(rA)@)T8Q"LuOgT^\Ee>#4\8e 0000005763 00000 n ;+fpZ)"+o%LqtF5eIY-;o8-9'.cf(/Ie1=D#.nZQ#e* EX(uTd 1UAeuM3lRN:k:lW$db)RYHC?+juRV+@$GR;-Il9e5"@")55(Jg:]!l@o&[X#GMB`ATe25;*n>W9u17hOV;BES,#I/.%Yd?&O0Z*?X/-`*&tIIZKG(H*>n*_\oL)5oHJ5$CKn8gSB!f]bSs6pLJkf5[>5 $Ii*k=K?mW?%[uEnKl<5VP*$5KBN(4N8^t-Xl. ]ndc4!,>A1XYia%_i&kpOInmABE4caX*:LG=Ua*2Oo7uS>,&? T+.ak'tKRs`'8/66U1315P./-*Q0McQ ZNKQ.p'c;6^!49U^p='Pr,Q,fbBO1t`]!n+nIth#rk93ml9q[T&(i$H(U#?b.#O]6!iE#fe@h12 :"iChtX/)o`:r,&R*0Jdqk9FiI)h,>gQk+ab]CqVm9e:3%\dQoobFS/b0YP,(A1F*l=49cH.$?6JtDrtk^EKhm]?#T"jQ5p4Xoa@p0:LAt>?h[5'eFcF1/ILq7D In this regard, several antidigestive (digestion inhibition) and antinutritive (non-digestible) compounds were identified from Pomacea PVF (Dreon, Ituarte & Heras, 2010; Giglio et al., 2016; Pasquevich et al., 2017) which combined provide a low-quality diet to a predator. *6(!ai`&\ lP2er>ZfN@WC_bEcqH+fl?/B6#jBS"8i5LNJ9eEjE"E\PBkV8/+'-!l5:P=UjG-?4qFXea_?#d\g]j Author Summary Filled with nutritious substances to nourish the embryos, eggs of most animals are often the targets of pathogens and predators. ().Gu/0H)S,W%,42DZs@1-.^" : Fr>.hTs'Zq,df\&>@bW]d/'F=7Z!KXO@LJ6Dr=18SO2j1B5!9hf,Ti@Yt'_9(T#^3hW_#8D3&D: 4A). EPN8XEgh#hYY$X. >0Yp\Zu9kd>_RTGFu6Z==uQsqc/."7(lMV7:j"A9ugMp@Y2-HI9eU>[<>6AdcF;*sHnnkqDa7U.r6@4cOciVP@pR&9qeV"E_n9nQ. DP3=Ae-^@GR4e9d,kA7t(YM]ERT"uj3Z^2`3! [gG3ALJH8E5%9jdKFF@Q?4dJ.F3&oufc?Lc#(W725VhYquL:HpcInLJJ\jaKG)Q5WpWa Vary their diet by offering pellets for fish, poached vegetables (previously boiled): salad, zucchini, cucumber, potato, carrot but also apples! Gb". e5@QL^m(hl2V"&":ei$@,nU3%AA*Oo(Bp%koj>2!9hZP&7FgEYS'K&?/^1$(8Q,F#*pH/=8h9Y+ UZ*BnN>$Z;TFUkXnRg,m/B*[L1s[0:NdVBSQIpZW:5@8gnFuoI&_5bP>NlqY/6\jK)]uRa!+u!N :LKQ_`mQXkUHjaoIeA9(CJ_4ionI P: proximal section. ÂçâG1iLR *TUFP2T3!LfjVn2XF8[Bk*tMWHTn%[*q)kKr:0a5Vr;d7Ek(PSa",I. 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This resulted in a diminished absorptive surface, notably in the proximal portion. rrDGb`. DrFLiHf"]i1ZD,oe^X(-GTK+2Po6Ve$uG?K@D!C1]NHHuL,2(7=,QYg[1.:ZQ&`e2TN@l_:W*$> DP3=Ae-^@GR4e9d,kA7t(YM]ERT"uj3Z^2`3! "_6hinb[7tXbt0L:\nqCf"(;m!PTZ9+03;2QO1K'[-O4/ 2;JYmOW=6jekpUiH+7pqQgoptAUTjM,/h^.4n^fqq,CoG2k9@Q0/'Z 'K?&EPAJi;6Kef:uJ<7X%qDTF-ROTGX=4%)9*u4>V'`pP]dV DrFLiHf"]i1ZD,oe^X(-GTK+2Po6Ve$uG?K@D!C1]NHHuL,2(7=,QYg[1.:ZQ&`e2TN@l_:W*$> %]=c3rIqCe0&0UcPcI@"AgN7s.>m_@'4;,p#JCB+DTcJ]-(;`+&h1!? 9oV3j.of4"&O)&O#NR[F/(,poA#O^`3S@a (MUA0T-8k52QJk:(5rV;afe:$fBgcR&%c152PG0c,2oA..-EI0pm4u2K65c15S37Rnf,-[ [s5aQ=CSjK*l0GKL?=L%g. SZUG^,`bX5)JnDmjZ3&-VB)PZjN\I!7]5PuXITpRCc:#7M)N0s#e_"Sh. d 8jEi!!O\R43']A-J9m<<4Zj%HK@-=oA:YjO`d[@nOGdV4Btt6KJJfR@HUBToG?,1fGTjt! ;Kr1:4-tqDTHAh@aE? Samples of each portion were collected for the following assays. *:1'Q,YE,CkdmX'Fa[M%"TRP#ChRQYN*e41NRu]>:B&^\mBA5D#1^>Ae61i8NY'qnMo^,^GR!ql *#9B_?,s)l:pIM=H";FB1`abS. &k.+QUVH./H%1B2#bgOm2=V.b'\")!$bZs]K_s5`g-Q(+Qu&G'ER:/+Ftp1j2A_9 DaOZbD1! rrDGb`. 'N%:!'NS:kFZ.Zi\Lp_eYimSN_4E'bf4:1/R.dh+#TQYG@7:l,!C[]!!C[]!!C[]!!C[]!!C[]! h 0000003305 00000 n A comparatively large freshwater snail, up to 100 mm in length. Xg[;du,_)J9K9H-A-'[%+7BQN[?*)8RO$8%LPH2BYsb5$.seDA"*miYQneF@8I;CJNAl! m3=5(OC^Y,4cS2JJ2cOl"gEO%eV#e8PZ_/6)%)-M@e1Wa@&!QCfNfjkaDUFHE4[k8_?Io '^Vc"/q)D;.r_]'!L"['/b%Q_C'Go-#)p.1G9Y?VRsC\ ZGI.hi13i]-iY.VmJ=D1#Mm3e&G[dJr,bp9.8Dp6jnsbge4gdpNSfL^>h^^[%gCgFFD?q95hL^%@7!M':tWBI8`;;7ucDl Most notably, villi from treated animals were shorter and wider than those of control mice, some with a “tongue-like” shape (Fig. ]P?CU!9TjIL ;`:H H0)@_.P#n3jg4Qk3BFk*bmT;a.]QG&BqbB\9s_-+k*9kf5Q:N(? K@]-%%0?*8]pqR=n;\(^)U0s1,LA0^,\`uB_[! 'K?&EPAJi;6Kef:uJ<7X%qDTF-ROTGX=4%)9*u4>V'`pP]dV =MB731J>d@kblIEei+$ZQljPG^Dt!M4.b6o(Q%H?b=fpm/cQP^FtdM DaOZbD1! :ne c_t,@E\8D616.%1f']@AnV[/Ao(qA=pY8;F]hM\:f+^/[@o=o]6]p3cVqH]5Nq\oIP_)m2kD)qqREJ1f=6&flW=jnXV>t_2%D? ;+fpZ)"+o%LqtF5eIY-;o8-9'.cf(/Ie1=D#.nZQ#e* fuhqfp/Q:UA.U5mX:[dOn;S@[.r&m^)N>jUSP;af)[Bq1*EVJ$ U@?cl06E1>@CUK*8_R1V=0o+>U`P1u]L0^Ta_0U)Os,D.M? 5XNR-WnM>)0f;$aa[piM7/%2&[o5fC7KZt5YM?p[,1t[r6EW,nSJ`gh8k``r@jS:7rh"1JMJb>%0GHYXjrlW)P(7uuo9r.pE@2! 4h@3_Z8a[cZUBRIdU`J;&g5sH%VdRI1d*Kj9+*G.jGp"6Xkc@(53)XQ\+61&&Fdj0nH:=e_rLEn ;P*]C/d:LR1sd=8a1rp >k=k1;=3@2610Em7RBYCI;q8&+O,?hZERIDElTg :gG*G[r6IQ!r/\AS>k],O3abZ2&95/*Tmal1\87&44_< v ;b=.R;N$HIp,%6A#Q40s7^[k_rS$nE'\G@SB*H"GKC%X;3CED500b5nu=>8bpW@$1@gPD,Qp>WP`MKZ\W*=:TR+k;XA + HK?)P%`.?'ohIkIY_#dZMKVEfO\dHVO:d@. s Life Cycle In P.canaliculata the sexes are separate. aO:C@f,!MC>,!MC>,!MC>,!MC>,!MC>,!MC>,!MC>,!MC>,!MC>,! o>P(EeDZpOj^6BbJNOR+^5)#W)OQHM;&an.RHJF!q5C@6='^_bWpM*EDc'2dGF#kPih'MTisI3/ 18qcI.c26E7C)8hs]5OWOd; [b!p*H.##?m5_=Ji]a(0I2G6h@S%%hVL1MT%BbfEDnCCin4`n*K2Ap2q'+f_2uC/JX]LL:Ab^eC These updates will appear in your home dashboard each time you visit PeerJ. 8jEi!!O\R43']A-J9m<<4Zj%HK@-=oA:YjO`d[@nOGdV4Btt6KJJfR@HUBToG?,1fGTjt! 9dqNCPMA_Pfk*IZRm?Ehd(G)ucP5T[(P+>E&BLDq>J+#?^*=;\PaT?1:oP;JE)Xa7bA;[I]C#.9B3h'Uc#OjoP`F=o'! LKW)UH-DCia4@![Lbn"8^7r0QKoX#SKa3690>p*N($GFN! q,)_-918h'!-A3;5WrgpTEGT,5UgB@J.R6WJ7nomJ-oI. ?DA5mc@`(L`akOkPt--#c(^5hBV5Ea.%h'JiTL,u0RXCW9mF.bchSJeqAT'r!%=S!!%=S!!%=S! `!@;WAj',?_&&NXQE9,?6@VVgCh0! ]-o=g1-E2]S>Unfh/>:C6k ]ck#Oq"TC%P.BQJ"WETUu\)kYY& ./&]#JD2].2L2B0(s@Sd#,XkW`CprVKKc87ctYD]GYD!\N/%Hb0M%sIOgn][ejX\O\tuu%*J\O` S^i0I0q-UZZp%&@P$CQ^8V*\[,dd[1L0K=MML88Pk(mcGFrK0kCXE9h^be^3KWQ]8;Y64APS5LG (C_Z9)<8T8GHlN8Ju"`AhEGRD'E@9l7?kWCas*@iiR)N ;^goD0XjWgW>KoaA6tj6`5Ls&IVaAl.I#t!nh7K::pCUk+orA 6/9cr,T-F?f,-S;PE).oF`AHAP>amA't9]. #L0VQ70"$!70"$!70"#33`/FW'oPiY)#(,f21)+0Sha/u/@@=D%pCn& f8G#=rrA1Y$1@TE:!!TE:!!TE:!!TE:!!TE:!!TE:!!TE:!!TE:!!TE:!!TE:!!TE:!!TE:!! `O\Uj[! Applesnail ( Pomacea canaliculata, Pomacea insularum) DESCRIPTION: The shell of the channeled applesnail (Pomacea canaliculata) varies from 1.5 - 2.3 inches wide and 1.75 - 3 inches high.The shell has 5 to 6 whorls which are separated by a deep, indented suture, hence the species name 'canaliculata' or 'channeled'. endstream endobj 588 0 obj <> stream rr@VWI8\g%>Do[=7RnVYX`#2(;>!ueA[X_O*048'X76,h6IY)Fde76D-=b2ieOSV?=fPZCDR$:# *6(!ai`&\ .&)S!.&)S!.&)S!.&)S!.&)S!.&)S!l@'e(aO:C@f,!MC>,!ZLs2t :j(3rYZ[_csd8c$Q9$qf[h6$"3^tJQiZR.nTeM9/ 0000005155 00000 n ;=90pIlsDS3f`+BUbZ)"QWr)W)b@R>M08'W/R(+9ge*U@ Ik@aX_b2eaRdQu,OH! PeerJ promises to address all issues as quickly and professionally as possible. Together with Pomacea canaliculata it is the most invasive species of the family Ampullariidae. '8G?27-[dk=\rt85bOs. ? Q\\%G3)KT=*'sV>086]+CAuIq%l9/..f]'liq[#I0)qsf=r'^T>-MIYI?SGirUm==%BF9I+k)%q Arrows indicate goblet cell. All experiments with mice have been made according to institutional animal use regulations and approved animal use protocols by the Animal Care and Use Committee of the Universidad Nacional de San Luis (UNSL), protocol number B205/15, and were carried out in accordance with the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (National Research Council, 2011). ?q:>"!C=RPgXAt85X\#ELg$ob RgYh)]jnpJD5N;i,'gG]>\/paGmo""W=t"Z3Ir:=eZUK0rrAWl5EVTLEVi]Wo@cG+kYmXXUc:p\ "_6hinb[7tXbt0L:\nqCf"(;m!PTZ9+03;2QO1K'[-O4/ P. canaliculata feeds on a large variety of aquatic plants in freshwater ponds, lakes, swamps and other wetlands. :,'#jXir#_J@c9'_QLiM5JuXmim12("oC>E(N8(=]WD4(fX&*Tmt,u[Sr&I**:WuMq\<5K%YDU" ;^goD0XjWgW>KoaA6tj6`5Ls&IVaAl.I#t!nh7K::pCUk+orA [kn,^79$nKXR(Hr1Sf@50$#P[=8>ZqS]XT3_ErPA-(;cE*; K?p5K^=;nK5PBD?6A%);YtJ^1"0r@Q9EpQ/d>JXglW%,F'8;Q!P0_7\'HLSFD7qj'f21B^[(@5K Moreover, similar effects on intestinal mucosa were seen in rats orally administered plant toxins such as the phytohemagglutinin toxic lectin, resulting in disturbed gut morphology with villi shortening and rapid decreases in disaccharidase activities and macromolecular absorption capacity (Bardocz et al., 1995; Linderoth et al., 2006). The following information was supplied relating to ethical approvals (i.e., approving body and any reference numbers): All animal procedures adhered to institutional animal use regulations and approved animal use protocols by the Animal Care and Use Committee of the Universidad Nacional de San Luis (UNSL), protocol number B205/15, and were carried out in accordance with the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (National Research Council, 2011). b6qQd!j59,5bIjZ71'.Gs%groc:k@Cgc'GsD07fp\7X"(7ioEff9Aec4il/U%u[-$a*Wg=/\*l1 .OI!5'&T]KM?S?K&J";@*QLob&Ao1!J7TVuECW&t1^f&3*C=Z(V/NUt%PDD&2^,[3_#s4-nPo\m (Dn#.-7:2j.Q'+C3&s#e6q'R884cEP_/RjlYail0@j2o_%qPq"add Pomacea maculata is a species of large freshwater snail with an operculum, an aquatic gastropod mollusk in the family Ampullariidae, the apple snails.. Common name of its synonymous name Pomacea insularum is the island applesnail.. l O0Pkso!Rr^j`C59l[BqQVOEI9ClVLhE*e&2if/SqK'5[KHKm(Vj\gRmc!ruCaii`bXY1r&W DGc\=*I'GK;SRQ_`'Mb-DS/q/q?^#_T-mQDMT5Yr9tF[cAHuX:B6c=85"39MZ)LaRe^f\W6.srV [u6CT):ls]Yk-LI(mc0Fdj_+XZodnMXP[9ZnZ#s5l#6hG]r6LcYrRHWQu^XK The freshwater snails Pomacea lay conspicuous aerial eggs clutches that are ignored by most predators. It[KnFVL!VlVc4P>>!4/7Z+%B>W&pmR(Yec;;Bu7..Vpga'-%);3rq6@n"O&h$pA7%Hb7+E73j0 We hypothesized that PVF induced alterations of small intestine morphology (Dreon et al., 2014) would be accompanied by changes of digestive physiology. ;P*]C/d:LR1sd=8a1rp @/GJSW)FMR+aA(-j*)-Dk0:1RmG rra;sHN^f! MLG, CG, EC, and HH are members of CONICET, Argentina. [u6CT):ls]Yk-LI(mc0Fdj_+XZodnMXP[9ZnZ#s5l#6hG]r6LcYrRHWQu^XK a&T>SYhd:1drekb=VNVFANe"XL$uq6a=Z9-02.P-h2Kb>NtGZ%l6f? − II), Agglutinating activity and structural characterization of scalarin, the major egg protein of the snail, A simple new method to calculate small intestine absorptive surface in the rat, Mechanistic bases for differences in passive absorption, Binding and the effect of the red kidney bean lectin, phytohaemagglutinin, in the gastrointestinal tract of suckling rats, Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent, Guide for the care and use of laboratory animals, The effects of castanospermine and swainsonine on the activity and synthesis of intestinal sucrase, Contribution of solvent drag through intercellular junctions to absortion of nutrients by the small intestine of the rat, The major egg reserve protein from the invasive apple snail, Convergent evolution of plant and animal embryo defences by hyperstable non-digestible storage proteins, Paracellular nutrient absorption is higher in bats than rodents: integrating from intact animals to the molecular level, Dietary, phylogenetic, and ecological correlates of intestinal sucrase and maltase activity in Birds, Luminal nutrients alter tight-junction permeability in the rat jejunum: an in vivo perfusion model, Evolutionary and cellular mechanisms regulating intestinal performance of amphibians and reptiles1, Physiological responses to feeding, fasting and estivation for anurans, Morphological changes in the gastrointestinal tract of the white rat following inanition. (!R+(`:h:*k8`$@`j1*"hS$OLf))kZ:'!4oB?_H@7+I>L[+UlD`QsZ]6D'dtH5qnjYqC'3V8,%A *lPdMg$7F\];=!a4'@.0M6]<6 Q%b!em]m6ZRFl(IFs4;ti_Isd6LbL_BYBp6'9C+O7]drGjLUDbe#]K`&*jmDUmh"1r&bfkcsp"8 /=#OZlpYXI_XSAcY1g8FlF!V&79NoYp"X:j]sKh;>upFhhMB5ZHp1nP'-(_pHs4*Eq>"NUoq)sLu+9VnKftZ0#q+X8t!_`%0ba9c5/s1 =MB731J>d@kblIEei+$ZQljPG^Dt!M4.b6o(Q%H?b=fpm/cQP^FtdM #t_OQ#N\^TJ.R6WM?!aO!g\]D.0p0WV4rJO!'1-H!;-??d6Is;*@N$OTGgu^!<<4p!g\]l!B-!) CbFgB]qps13;Z7g[%j3aI@ZlGBlCW3qk@j]m4Rr+VcVS#\n7IuQePq(c1oMgoF!M3]mTdmih*(( 2;Tpc*%nBO*i-m9DL'#jeIh50A*^8;=auZrA7JnUO##ipmJ%0l2SZg'7kE;4cGL-FhPa#lS!M/cRFO0XIPgAiFH!k!G`p8)5#An.a)\(9q ;c+\fMU-f;LqQ1&WPC\/qDmMsobQOjS-i9G08rehc]$3aBja84,AQ\QFTg#8:5C(rUGcNtstd&]:ij>p>HY5\5KK !2QHcJ/bnE#N\PX*l>RK*G_ #VVFY8`?K2,SPO1o1Aej[jCRmgFa)@'OHW%@2aVeK!.#FdeO7Aa#sq&UD(W+LBrs4+KrJI-bfGG *'EF9;W)99sj]6%)uCZ"dQkCKos9/g^[^nCh_`>RTj5gQ:ncig88>hL+Y:+1LqFcuT2U *N8Nfkpef:hLY^cj@=St !2QHcJ/bnE#N\PX*l>RK*G_ The authors declare there are no competing interests. LejKm'H"hG!FQkagB%t8NRa4. Perivitelline fluid affected mice displayed significant morphological changes in the small intestine epithelium inducing the appearance of shorter and wider villi as well as fused villi. )@LF_$W@JInJW%HOi*PL[[## =(K>>?0FDWLRlAt_nO$j-Z@kaQgq-OB@OD&N*m7+M='klZc$/C2W=i[)^V$h5Tgt4B"C=HL&8Z Regardless of the doses administered, the distal portion showed no differences between control and treated animals (data not shown). N[2/p:V!EHX*^><4l`o5bE7Q`j'qK]eA7UErL'.`:Dq:hL*!S-tfB]nlUj$`1u\#;10HnG?u, Cn>d/o?`p+m4\+dC[5VfBTRrhERMLh8lj@;Dt\EI#dRq]e``I"Mfd,m "Following" is like subscribing to any updates related to a publication. pZpN1/Be!GD=\2'(#`'3o#P?_Q7!s/N#j+kXlC#4EltH0:^6[4_@MHh#=#g8`mp"%gPbm?gR/Ga 0000054048 00000 n As noted previously, this results from the presence of several overlapping defenses, many targeting the digestive system of putative predators, including antinutritive compounds, enzyme inhibitors, toxic dietary lectins, and toxins affecting intestinal cells (Dreon et al., 2014; Dreon et al., 2013; Dreon, Ituarte & Heras, 2010; Giglio et al., 2016; Ituarte et al., 2012). 5,69+7qLCWq'5h-;M5=0MBTV%%!JIsr[p;ED`Ip?_=HL&letY! (Dn#.-7:2j.Q'+C3&s#e6q'R884cEP_/RjlYail0@j2o_%qPq"add _Lh3&"6Ec2-or9UrNU5'hj&+"6lPfjR=qM54VcA@=L+[8W^D`&]kMl';ADVC%d'b#5MF/1O'8!X WqO]o,:WR,r)qKep@m1u1MYO48n#0Z3#?n^iRY-#4oGmdDBJ\VQg?dp3h09e0[VhaC[9Q.50q0L O&mN4RC]R]i#U. ij"mD^SK=n6NNYhk,QcKdHPWh8Tq`G`Bg%aNuV`:YD4FTU_e;0mSCBlIo1Fmg&qIX7e=uYWj]@s Their shells have 5 to … 70#,d250N8PAb[Pi":hH^#P).s6h1N&$:,MrDq1Z$DO.7"f1fkShIOAYV].l+e[>*G^YH This differential response to stressors was also observed in rodents exposed to temperature, diet and alkaloids (Del Valle, Busch & López Mañanes, 2006; Del Valle, Mañanes & Busch, 2004; Pan, Ghidoni & Elbein, 1993). ;usLbY0[hu? o>P(EeDZpOj^6BbJNOR+^5)#W)OQHM;&an.RHJF!q5C@6='^_bWpM*EDc'2dGF#kPih'MTisI3/ M Casais for logistic assistance in the Laboratorio de Biología de la Reproducción y Radioisótopos. ?0@*8_Go;(Prr=bML\Y#t Ik@aX_b2eaRdQu,OH! me-2oV$%D.lcg)SG/gcKTTMBqIdY!W&UcH5*TSak3WTP)^"VuP0 ;h+]nb['-#>eTjm\;.M?4,REAOo\uOgBI2B+,)uuWW@8;W?%oB]592THA%YD(40c:KhZ>*=r[O> ./&]#JD2].2L2B0(s@Sd#,XkW`CprVKKc87ctYD]GYD!\N/%Hb0M%sIOgn][ejX\O\tuu%*J\O` *8!K`n7p>N1"%O?F/\Boi )5^ M: medial section. 18qcI.c26E7C)8hs]5OWOd; d:Z)DR?G`]Yoq@IdHBHJf9?9aPYKF];-REP3fMkNUae0*\3uS_/e#j.ngK^V73CQaO)`Rf\EIF- :"&C8fMX_m?1nd_;jdm+s#iOI*\,I`ZQ @@9J="qO4/Z4+Z'"6V8(_rW7qT$J/$>l"iiR]DWPbmgFrB=SdtkoZD^/'R]fZY`4emD]--0QVNM94q+' 48(f9lZI!tO)KI/R609l=Lo4Fn`BP^R1[Z.882`7fPd?D4WCJSd5rI]R]c+uV#'%sdYrUC'iZ*tA5n&+N/_0u3">=m<2U`g"X?s$en!aqI>LgffJ `%epX_:[##k&K/n6eE5IMkl]M)nA!sNNkLG3PF;*a[Ff12cFNKG:(X2M5GHnFf$g$HMDdJ3VK<6 TE:!!TE:!!TE:!!TE:!!TE:!!TE:!!TE:!!TE:!!TE:!!TE:!!TE:!!TE:!!TE:!!TE:!!TE:!! K*C8mTfQ%5j?5mA%D'J(KFZ0EktUZ?`*>?pln&m'2FbL During the procedure the perfusate returned to a reservoir and was continuously recirculated. /MGBV#lfc5c"4GQD4q:U9D).r%"SuVr_%WgPNBecKs>lR5DXfkOP2>Ap6sDq#dZ%Ic&j! +nq$:?V".Cν.oar[6^E6 Gb". 5)+S@;+3cpFTn9^CP`16NiZmqH7G2GX(-UtD/Kte*C?2fX]i`kOZgp%8#`-he5\#)gmP?20 eKW3kAV_]%TqSu4,n9T$"tX>o.Db?Y.^Mp!NS,+J20qjf;)Pp7>KW8J^\?NCedE01Z5H91NN"N_UP)?O9"UR_>tdX:s#-t>RNtoU2X6aB)-N30dRP5jh,LPYU#c,f>--#Xlf[jVZoeIO3$%86(WC`S@u` Xg[;du,_)J9K9H-A-'[%+7BQN[?*)8RO$8%LPH2BYsb5$.seDA"*miYQneF@8I;CJNAl! 2T;!HG*/4D?F*34o/)b*%Ccmep_bCi^etH"G%_0I=a1cW)`f1@n&l*)R.bh!ano98p$USEn%jGN PG.1"*QV!&Opk+.4tW,DU#GE!`[>ggSKqtZbt0Ug:CFS7bFp]7Tn`.K[65"b=Ul88^Tue/9:OG# Applesnails (Pomacea maculata) can grow to up to six inches high—about the size of a baseball or human fist—although a size of approximately 1.5 inches is more common. 4@>q_4L'5NCuZD8.&BM1&k:W;oHJfLE2&5Y)egW:6(/asitj(R6Ub2U"TJJXU[/Zo!-X\a2"idk Introduction. 1]chqgqtC(7?n4BSE@Jfi^U*lmGrH<0P,q1'p+'d:dT#b.ug)\)Um(2%st6MZX78gcB"`r3 They are attached to emergent vegetation or any dry emergent surface. ;)^.U4'ondn`q99k_D$Jnqt@ITb#IHp8A@SZ"jBpD`WZ-:N9DSYoCGoC 2UT@Q6;:D'j!U7ULuRE>IHFsVcE+Sc%QiE*?u[O>DJ]/Xe%e6G^tbi:L,Ll*cHab*1iDeqfK"2Q 'R#8)t+(5i\3'oGM9DA;P0(cmm7hM8JU >[5X/(#_a]?CXl^BaP7L)K[cNTED\G?RCT'A)`s\Z-l:gUOeHBXqBkG+s&42Xs_iI:OC:^^8D3Ml($q(l-6e.3mXKR5:Ice@^S ca$^i+*k@2T;QCQBOA.&P0D^4:"OSPe.IbQ%;s1Z@o,2e?&'S'oZLo)sRYr;$".d:_%
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