CABI is a registered EU trademark. The identity, distribution, and impacts of non-native apple snails in the continental United States. Pomacea maculata; aperture view of large shell that has been cleaned and briefly bleached. Consumption of another three plants (Pontederia lanceolata, Sagittaria kurziana and Myriophyllum heterophyllum) was 1-2 g/g/d and snails showed minimal consumption (0.032 – 0.049 g/g/d) of E. densa, Alternanthera philoxeroides and E. crassipes. Also, the juveniles of many species are essentially indistinguishable morphologically. They may also use leftover egg material as an initial resource. However, efforts have been made to facilitate consumption of P. maculata by the kites, for example managers have installed perches close to the water body where the birds can extract the snails rather than spending energy taking them back to a more distant location (Pias et al., 2012). (15 cm) high and are higher than they are wide. The second and third shells represent early and late juveniles, respectively, as described in Burks et al. The first whorl of one-day-old hatchlings is ~0.8 mm wide and the hatchling shell is 1.2 mm in height; the semi-translucent operculum is ~1.1 mm in width (Barnes et al., 2008; Horn et al., 2008; Hayes et al., 2012). The shell is yellowish brown or yellow–green to greenish brown or dark chestnut, sometimes with reddish to green–brown or dark brown spiral bands of variable number and thickness. The name Pomacea insularum(anglicized in the USA as the “island applesnail”) was formerly used as the valid name of P. maculatabut is now a junior objective synonym of P. maculata, following the designation of a single specimen as both the neotype of P. maculataand lectotype of P. insularum; the same specimen was also designated as the neotype of P. gigas, thereby making this also a junior … bridge pilings, rocks). Invading herbivory: the golden apple snail alters ecosystem functioning in asian wetlands. (2013) provided a model that predicted suitable habitat for P. maculata in the USA, based on climate modelling and the influence of pH. In Houston, Texas, USA, where many populations of introduced P. maculata exist, temperatures can reach highs of 33 °C. The most northern latitude at which P. maculata populations occur is the Ebro River delta in Spain (EFSA Panel on Plant Health, 2012; Horgan et al., 2012; Andre and Lopez, 2013), where it has been introduced. Similarly, as an invasive species, P. maculata and other congeneric invasive species (primarily P. canaliculata but also P. diffusa) offer opportunities for addressing interesting questions of rapid evolution and adaptation (e.g. The EOL Forum; Education; Citing EOL It can be used in permanent greenhouses. Impact of invasive apple snails on the functioning and services of natural and managed wetlands. Predation on eggs of the apple snail Pomacea canaliculata (Gastropoda: Ampullariidae) by the fire ant Solenopsis geminata. Hawaii Journal of Medicine and Public Health, 72(6, Suppl. The method focuses on P. maculata and P. canaliculata and may not help in distinguishing them from other closely related species. Report on a visit to Cambodia to advise on apple snails as potential rice pests. Educational efforts should advise small children not to play with snails. Ampullaria gigas Spix in Wagner, 1827. Although now widespread in Asia, it is not present in Australia, or in any Pacific islands country other than Papua New Guinea. Pomacea maculata; newly collected, medium-sized specimens, laying pink egg clutches. However, due to the snails’ preference for macrophytes over algae as a food resource, this species has limited application in the aquarium trade. crayfish) for food (Byers et al., 2012). Malacologia, 47(1/2):397 pp, Britton DK, McMahon RF, 2005. However, there was much greater variation in consumption tendencies for taro and water hyacinth, although none of the studies showed P. maculata having a strong preference for these resources. Red List of Threatened Species. The first sign of an infestation is usually the presence of pink eggs, which are highly visible above the water line. of coolest month > 18°C, > 1500mm precipitation annually, Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25])), As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer, < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25]), Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate, < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25]), Average temp. (2008, 2012), the identity of the species involved must be considered with caution. Several sources list P. maculata as a pest species. In Papua New Guinea; NOT in Australia (intercepted only), nor in Palau (eradicated). What's New? There are four species of Pomaceain Florida, one of which is native and considered beneficial (Capinera and White 2011). These populations probably became mixed through either deliberate human-mediated introductions or via natural spread of one species to localities already invaded by the other. Texas, Florida, South Carolina) have put P. maculata on a list of prohibited species. In the USA, efforts should pay special attention to stands of other invasive plants, notably wild taro (C. esculenta), with which P. maculata is frequently associated. Nonetheless, egg clutches are laid on all sorts of substrates that can support the weight of the female snail (emergent plants, rocks, bridge supports, etc.). Deliberate introduction for food may therefore now be rare. (2008) found that one adult P. maculata had the equivalent impact of three to four P. paludosa on the native juveniles’ growth rates and survival. A molecular method using species-specific markers within the COI fragment has been used to differentiate P. maculata and P. canaliculata in Asian populations (Matsukura et al., 2008), but the method does not take into account the overall extent of variation in COI and may not distinguish the two species in other places. Journal of Molluscan Studies, 67(3):275-279, Yusa Y, 2006. No mixed species populations were reported by Hayes et al. Both have brown shells, often with spiral bands; they are much smaller than P. maculata as adults and the shells are usually thinner. The shells of P. paludosa are smaller, thinner and with a smaller aperture, making them easier to handle than P. maculata, which are then more likely to be dropped. A reference to P. maculata as 'giant Peruvian’ or ‘Inca' snails (Dillon, 2006) does not reflect the broad distribution of this species. cuprinaReeve, 1856, leviorSowerby, 1909, lineataSpix in Wagner, 1827), or mis-spell the genus or species names (e.g. For instance, in the Philippines, where the snail occurs over approximately 50% of the area devoted to the crop, losses in yield, replanting, and pesticide use cost many millions of dollars annually. Numerous cultural control measures have been implemented for P. canaliculata (see the Invasive Species Compendium datasheet for P. canaliculata) and are probably also applicable to P. maculata. In general, the former is the primary risk in Asia and the latter in other regions, though by no means exclusively. Both species possess two glands on the dorsal surface of the penis sheath. However, the algae-eating ‘spike-topped’ apple snail, Pomacea diffusa (formerly identified as the different species Pomacea bridgesii) is not perceived as a threat to agriculture and so P. diffusa remains freely available in the aquarium trade. For example, in the study by Morrison and Hay (2010), snails did not consume P. cordata but in that of Baker et al. Terminal (leaf) node. Molluscan Research, 24:139-148, Thiengo SC, Simões Rde O, Fernandez MA, Maldonado Júnior A, 2013. While larger adult snails of some species are relatively easily distinguished, small juvenile snails sold in the pet trade are much more difficult to distinguish, especially by a non-expert. The name has been given to several Pomacea species, due to confused identification. The expansion of this enterprise probably resulted in the introduction of P. maculata to several countries. In any case, a number of other species of Pomacea, including P. maculata, have deeply channelled shell sutures, the feature that is reflected by this name. Effects of washing produce contaminated with the snail and slug hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis with three common household solutions. Confused taxonomy and some preliminary resolution. The other Old World genera (Afropomus, Forbesopomus, Saulea) include only a small number of species and are not likely to be encountered. Clutches should be physically destroyed by crushing. Fertilization occurs internally, followed by oviparous development. Freshwater Gastropoda. P. maculata occurs in shallow parts of slow-moving bodies of fresh water, close to riverbanks, at the edges of lakes and in ponds, in wetlands and irrigated wetland croplands and in drainage/irrigation ditches. On a small scale, the effects may not provoke action, but populations with higher densities would magnify this pattern and increase the ecological impact. congeneric species by relying on common names rather than the scientific names (Hayes et al., 2009a; 2012). 2012, In Florida, initial control efforts in Wellman’s Pond focused on hand collection of snails but this proved extremely time consuming and ineffective. Whilst quantitative consumption data remain uncollected from the field, various laboratory studies indicate that P. maculata acts as a generalist herbivore, and quickly consumes available resources. Common name: giant applesnail. In: Report prepared for Cambodia-IRRI-Australia Project, Phnom Penh, Honolulu, Bishop Museum. Nonetheless, much of the primary literature dealing supposedly with P. canaliculata, may have been (and probably still is) also dealing inadvertently with either P. maculata or a mixture of the two species. ... Pomacea maculata Perry, 1810 Common names Große Apfelschnecke in German Große Kugelschnecke in German Riesenapfelschnecke in German giant apple snail in English Among environmental factors, Ramakrishnan (2007) examined tolerance to salinity, pH and temperature. Snail consumption ranged from 55 % to 96 % on a subset of plants (approximate rank order: Hymenocallis liriosme, Ceratophyllum demersum, Ruppia maritima, Colocasia esculenta, Eichhornia crassipes, Sagittaria lancifolia). Pomacea maculata is a species of large freshwater snail with an operculum, an aquatic gastropod mollusk in the family Ampullariidae, the apple snails. Novel animal defenses against predation: a snail neurotoxin combining lectin and pore-forming chains that resembles plant defense and bacteria attack toxins. Biological Invasions. (2007), and given the common name ‘island apple snail’ (‘insularum’ in Latin means ‘of islands’) by various agencies. Color can range from pale to darker olive green often with a faint dark band. The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need. In this study, at salinity levels of 0-6.8‰ survival was greater than 90% after a 28 day exposure. Fecundity of the exotic apple snail, Pomacea insularum. The apple snail Pomacea canaliculata, a novel vector of the rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis: its introduction, spread, and control in China. Boston, USA: Houghton Mifflin, 384 pp, Pias KE, Welch ZC, Kitchens WM, 2012. Applied Entomology and Zoology, 43(4):535-540., MMAMRM (Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Medio Rural y Marino), 2011. Adults have thin shells, 35-60 mm high, which coils to the right (when apex is uppermost and opening is to the right), and varies from yellow brown, greenish-brown to dark brown, often with bands, with a brown horny operculum which closes the opening of the shell (Photo 1&2). Although a useful control method for an early detected, small invasion of P. maculata, hand removal of adults is time consuming and some snails can still go undetected making the control treatment ineffective (Martin et al., 2012). In general, Pomacea were not well liked as a food in Asia and markets did not develop (e.g. (2013) reported COI sequences characteristic of P. maculata but individuals could have been hybrids between P. maculata and P. canaliculata, and it is possible that the P. maculata genes originate from hybrids introduced from the native range. The Cowie Lab at the University of Hawaii,         Subclass: Caenogastropoda,             Class: Gastropoda,                 Subclass: Caenogastropoda,                     Order: Architaenioglossa,                         Unknown: Ampullarioidea,                             Family: Ampullariidae,                                 Genus: Pomacea,                                     Species: Pomacea maculata, Highly adaptable to different environments, Benefits from human association (i.e. In this case, high snail mortality occurred (50-75%) but some large, adult snails still persisted. by Joshi, R. C.\Sebastian, L. S.]. Applied Entomology and Zoology. Photo 1. The species was established in Texas by 1989, in Florida by the mid to late 1990s and in Georgia by 2005 (Rawlings et al., 2007) and continues to spread (Byers et al., 2013). Ampullaria crosseana Hidalgo, 1871. For morning glory, they took longer to scrape at the hollow stems that later gave access to the leaves, Also in Laos, snails (probably P. canaliculata) in an enclosure study consumed greater amounts of Ludwigia adscendens and Salvinia cucullata than of I. aquatica (Carlsson and Brönmark, 2006). Freshwater Biology, 51(4):695-704., Carlsson NOL, Brönmark C, Hansson LA, 2004. Pila Roding, 1798 and Pomacea Perry, 1810 (Mollusca, Gastropoda): placed on the Official List, and Ampullariidae Gray, 1824: confirmed as the nomenclaturally valid synonym of Pilidae Preston, 1915. Biological Name. Nature in Singapore, 7:31-47, Pasquevich MY, Dreon MS, Heras H, 2014. It remains unclear whether hybridization occurred only in the introduced range, or in the native range prior to introduction of the two species (including hybrids) to Asia. Consumption rates on three plants (Limnobium spongia, Chara sp., Panicum repens) exceeded 3 g/g/d, whereas snails consumed another five species at a rate of 2-3 g/g/d (H. verticillata, S. latifolia, C. demersum, N. guadalupensis and V. americana). However, their study distinguished P. canaliculata and P. “insularus” (= maculata), although they got the identifications reversed, Ebro River, Catalonia; identification confirmed via DNA sequencing by (MMAMRM, 2011), Southernmost Alabama (i.e. (2009b) and showed that P. maculata and P. canaliculata are not particularly closely related and are not sister taxa. Pomacea maculata critical point-dried penial sheath, showing two glands on the dorsal surface. In males the penis sheath is visible just behind the mantle edge above the right tentacle. In the native habitat, mounds of shells often indicate the presence of snail kites. Similarly, small watercraft (e.g. Establishment of the invasive island apple snail Pomacea insularum (gastropoda: ampullariidae) and eradication efforts in Mobile, Alabama, US. Los Baños, Philippines: Philippine Rice Research Institute (PhilRice), 267-274, Ramakrishnan V, 2007. Adult and juvenile P. maculata both consume aquatic macrophytes. BMC Evolutionary Biology. Impact and control of introduced apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck), in Japan. Wetland restoration and invasive species: apple snail (Pomacea insularum) feeding on native and invasive aquatic plants. These egg clutches provide a warning sign of a reproducing population (Burks et al., 2010; Kyle et al., 2011). The snails consumed duckweed in one piece but first attacked the roots and aerenchyma-filled bulbs of water hyacinth before consuming the leaves. Howells et al. (2006) treated it as P. bridgesii, of which P. diffusa was then considered a subspecies (Cowie Consequently, the use of common names should be avoided to reduce confusion within this taxonomically difficult group (Hayes et al., 2009b). This pattern occurs in other lake systems. Species of Asolene are generally small < 2 cm shell height) and usually yellow with brown bands. 1-12. DOI:10.1016/j.actao.2012. (2011) demonstrated that a 10 g P. maculata from non-native populations in Texas consumed approximately 3.5 g of live plant material per day with more Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) consumed than wild taro (Colocasia esculenta) and more taro than water hyacinth. Pomacea canaliculata, Ampullariidae: Golden Apple Snail. (2013) found preliminary genetic evidence of hybrid individuals. Proceedings of International Workshop on Biological Invasions of Ecosystems by Pests and Beneficial Organisms. This appears to be the only broad study of the physiology of P. maculata. Other apple snails, notably P. diffusa, have been found in the trade in Australia, Hawaii, Florida and Iran (Hayes et al., 2008). 'Snail Busters' apple snail trap as deployed in shallow water. During desiccation, water loss was greater at higher RH values and higher temperatures, and smaller snails lost proportionately more water than larger snails. P. maculata can impact many plant species. The adult shell is globose, thick, occasionally malleate (predominantly in Brazilian specimens) but generally smooth (sometimes with faint axial growth lines) and ~35 to >165 mm in shell height. Pila Roding, 1798 and Pomacea Perry, 1810 (Mollusca, Gastropoda): proposed placement on the Official List, and Ampullariidae Gray, 1824: proposed confirmation as the nomenclaturally valid synonym of Pilidae Preston, 1915. Other scientific names. Hatchlings of the two species are readily distinguished. Specifically, P. maculata also quickly consumed S. latifolia after eliminating the Utricularia. Burks et al. Golden apple snails in China. by Joshi, R. C.\Sebastian, L. S.]. However, sequences of a portion of a single nuclear marker (EF1-a) from a few individuals of both species found in sympatry indicated possible hybridization or incomplete lineage sorting at this locus (Hayes et al., 2013; Matsukura et al., 2013). Boland et al. The primary mode of spread has probably been deliberate introduction to new areas by people who see it as a potential source of food, generally not distinguishing it from P. canaliculata. Survivorship of individuals held at temperatures ≤36°C was high but declined progressively at temperatures of 37-41°C regardless of acclimation temperature; survival was greater for large snails. Pomacea maculata Perry, 1810 . (2008), Introduced from elsewhere in east or South-East Asia. Their reproductive capacity certainly exceeds that reported for other Pomacea species (Cowie, 2002). Predation on freshwater bryozoans by the apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata, Ampullariidae, an invasive species in Southeast Asia: a summary report. In Laos, apple snails (probably P. canaliculata) consumed all of the duckweed (Lemna minor) offered in just six days but took 21 days to eat the equivalent amount of water hyacinth, and by the end of 32 days had consumed only 20% of the morning glory (Ipomoea aquatica) (Carlsson and Lacoursière, 2005). Genetic divergence of the genus Pomacea (Gastropoda: Ampullariidae) distributed in Japan, and a simple molecular method to distinguish P. canaliculata and P. insularum. Florida, USA: Wordpress. The majority of references identify Argentina as the original source of the introduced Pomacea (e.g. The shell of the channeled applesnail (Pomacea canaliculata) varies from 1.5 - 2.3 inches wide and 1.75 - 3 inches high. The shell has 5 to 6 whorls which are separated by a deep, indented suture, hence the species name 'canaliculata' or 'channeled'. Ranamukhaarachchi and Wikramasinghe, 2006, EFSA Panel on Plant Health, London, UK: Earthscan, 207-217, Cowie RH, Hayes KA, Thiengo SC, 2006. (2012) recognised the species name Pomacea maculata as the senior synonym of a number of other Pomacea species, including P. insularum, the name Channelled apple snail, South American channelled-type apple snail . However, above a level of 6.8‰, survivorship declined rapidly, such that at 13.6‰ and above, 100% mortality occurring within 3-7 days. by Joshi, R. C.\Sebastian, L. S.]. attempt to adhere to some type of substrate. Pest risk analysis on the introduction of Pomacea insularum into the EU., Wada T, 1997. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Ampullariid taxonomy has until recently relied almost exclusively on shell morphology (conchology). Their pH data were from the dissertation of Ramakrishnan (2007), which examined tolerance to environmental temperature (15.2-36.6°C), salinity (0-6.8‰) and pH (4.0-10.5). The golden apple snail in Vietnam. The foot is oval with a squarish anterior edge. by Sturm, C. F. \Pearce, T. A. The neurological damage and immune reaction, the latter caused especially by the dead worms, cause eosinophilic meningitis. Therefore, the date of its first introduction to the region is not known. Teem et al. CHEMICAL CONTROLThis is not a method that can be recommended: molluscicides are expensive and some are toxic to human beings. Viable clutches usually take 10-14 days to hatch (Barnes et al., 2008; Horn et al., 2008). Hydrobiologia [Structure and Function of World Shallow Lakes. Scientific name i: Pomacea maculata: Taxonomy navigation › Pomacea. Nonetheless, in areas of Asia where introduced populations of P. maculata and P. canaliculata overlap (i.e. The occurrence of the rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, in nonindigenous snails in the Gulf of Mexico region of the United States. The albino variant is the most common in shops, and should have yellow-white flesh with orange spots and a golden yellow shell. Immersion of the eggs, especially for extensive periods, reduces hatching success. In: Global advances in ecology and management of golden apple snails [ed. The body is golden-pinkish or orange-yellow. Journal of Medical and Applied Malacology. Ang Pomacea maculata sakop sa kahenera nga Pomacea sa kabanay nga Ampullariidae. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label. (2010) noted that P. maculata in Texas laid a disproportional number of clutches on riparian vegetation, specifically taro (Colocasia esculenta). Naylor, 1996; Teo, 2004). ( At intermediate RH levels and for the intermediate sized snails, survivorship ranged within these extremes. (2007), Hayes et al. Gainesville, Florida, USA: United States Geological Survey. The mobile application is available from the Google Play Store and Apple iTunes. They all identified the snails as P. canaliculata and for the studies in Laos there is no evidence that this was in error, and in fact P. maculata has not been recorded from Laos. Ampullaria georgii Williams, 1889. States with nonindigenous occurrences, the earliest and latest observations in each state, and the tally and names of HUCs with observations†. Herbivory on aquatic vascular plants by the introduced golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) in Lao PDR. 185-192, Teem JL, Qvarnstrom Y, Bishop HS, Silva AJda, Carter J, White-Mclean J, Smith T, 2013. Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide. Appearance/Characteristics . 2), 11-14., Romi L. Burks, Department of Biology, Southwestern University, 1001 East University Avenue, Georgetown, TX 78626, USA, Amy E. Miller, Animal Behaviour Program, Southwestern University, 1001 East University Avenue, Georgetown, TX 78626, USA, Alexandria L. Hill, Department of Biology, Southwestern University, 1001 East University Avenue, Georgetown, TX 78626, USA. Invasions in agriculture: assessing the cost of the golden apple snail in Asia. Due to the confusion in species identification, it is impossible to determine exactly when P. maculata was initially introduced to Asia, much less into individual countries. With some exceptions (e.g. It may out-compete native apple snails (Halwart, 1994a; Warren, 1997), prey on native fauna (Wood et al., 2005, 2006) and alter natural ecosystem function (Carlsson et al. Continued surveillance for pink clutches on any number of hard substrates should be implemented (Burks et al., 2010; Kyle et al., 2011). The activity patterns of P. maculata are probably similar to those of P. canaliculata but no studies have addressed these aspects of behaviour in P. maculata. Egg size is a reliable way to distinguish the two species, although it may not be so useful when other pink egg laying species are also present. The effectiveness of different control strategies and the potential for “invasional meltdown” (Simberloff and Von Holle, 1999) with other exotic species such as taro (Colocasia esculenta) also warrants further investigation. This confusion has meant that the common name most widely used in Asia, ‘golden apple snail’, or GAS (Joshi and Sebastian, 2006), in fact refers to two species, P. canaliculata and P. maculata. Density effects of native and exotic snails on growth in juvenile apple snails Pomacea paludosa (Gastropoda: Ampullariidae): a laboratory experiment. In: Molluscan Research, 3 (1) 1-5. [ed. Using a similar approach, Morrison and Hay (2011) conducted paired feeding experiments that gave P. maculata the choice between plants found outside their native distribution (i.e. Byers et al. Madrid, Spain: Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Medio Rural y Marino, 45 pp, Mochida O, 1991. Hatchlings are likely to rely on detritus and algal-based resources for food, although they also readily consume lettuce in the laboratory. In Texas, with a warm temperate climate, females tend to start laying clutches near the end of spring or start of summer and continue throughout summer and the warmer months of autumn. However, they can be distinguished using both morphological and molecular characters, as described by Hayes et al. It is native to South America from Uruguay, Paraguay, and the bordering areas of Brazil and Argentina, north to the Amazon River. Snail Busters: Stop the invasive South American apple snails. With the global need to find alternate protein sources, the culinary industries of various countries might explore further the use of apple snails as a local delicacy or ethnic cuisine. Nonetheless, distinguishing these species (at least when the much larger P. maculata are juvenile) on the basis of these shell characteristics is not easy and requires considerable experience, especially given the variability in shell shape within these species. The distribution of P. maculata in Asia now broadly overlaps that of P. canaliculata (Hayes et al., 2008, 2012). In this study, there was no measurable consumption by P. maculata of Nymphaea odorata, T. latifolia, P. illinoensis, M. aquaticum, C. esculenta, Hydrocotyle umbellata, Pistia stratiotes and S. lancifolia. For instance, a ban on the outdoor use of metaldehyde will be introduced in the UK from Spring 2020. Apple snail invasions and the slow road to control: ecological, economic, agricultural, and cultural perspectives in Hawaii. In: A handbook of global freshwater invasive species [ed. The molecular genetics of P. maculata has been less studied than that of P. canaliculata, although the two species, previously difficult to distinguish, can now be readily distinguished based on DNA markers; they are not sister species (Hayes et al., 2008, 2009b, 2012). Due to the confusion in species identification, the history of introduction of P. maculata remains somewhat uncertain as does its invasiveness and pest potential. Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. 15 (9), 2039-2048. DOI:10.1007/s10530-013-0431-1, Matsukura K, Okuda M, Kubota K, Wada T, 2008. Pomacea maculata; laying a clutch of eggs in the early morning. The identity, distribution, and impacts of non-native apple snails in the continental United States. 2012). Most of the P. insularum screened by Rawlings et al. Impact of invasive apple snails on the functioning and services of natural and managed wetlands. The ranges of both these species overlap with that of P. maculata and they are probably significant predators of this species. Los Baños, Philippines: Philippine Rice Research Institute (PhilRice), 169-179, Yang TingBao, Wu ZhongDao, Lun ZhaoRong, 2013. Pomacea maculata; mating pair. Snails survived by filling their shells with air and floating away from the pesticide application. Molluscs are a very diverse group, with at least 85,000 species named, and estimates of up to 200,000 species occurring worldwide. Nontheless, it can be assumed that P. maculata was introduced for the same reasons as was P. canaliculata, even if it was not distinguished from the latter. (2013) recommended carefully washing all produce for human consumption that might be contaminated. However, the rapid spread of P. maculata within Asia following introduction has been predominantly human mediated. In: The mollusks: a guide to their study, collection, and preservation [ed. Los Baños, Philippines: Philippine Rice Research Institute (PhilRice), 181-197, Warren GL, 1997. 14 (4), 701-712. DOI:10.1111/j.1472-4642.2008.00483.x. Biological Invasions, 15(9):2039-2048., Matsukura K, Okuda M, Kubota K, Wada T, 2008. In addition, apple snails in general occur on a number of other invasive species watch lists (e.g. plants and wood) in preference to artificial substrates (Kyle et al., 2011). (2009) discussed the increasing proportion of juveniles observed in their study from 2006 to 2008. Ampullaria castelnaudii Hupé, 1857. Species identification from archived snail shells via genetic analysis: a method for DNA extraction from empty shells. Pomacea maculata was initially identified in the USA as P. insularum by Rawlings et al. Pomacea maculata; lateral view of seven shells arranged by increasing size. Normal coloration typically includes bands of brown, black, and yellowish-tan, … Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature, 54(2):83-88, Cowie RH, 2002. (2008) found that P. maculata adults readily consumed P. maculata eggs. by Joshi, R. C.\Sebastian, L. S.]. Furthermore, such feeding attempts may prove unsuccessful. Authority. Kyle et al. Pomacea canaliculata lamarck 1822 taxonomy phylogenetic. The number of eggs in a clutch is greater in P. maculata but the eggs are smaller; hence hatchlings of P. canaliculata are roughly twice as big as those of P. maculata (Hayes et al., 2012). At ph 3.5, 20% survived the full 28 days, while at ph values of 5.5-9 all but 0-2 snails out of 15-20 survived. The initial introduction of this snail into Southeast Asia was intentional, as both a food commodity for export and an important local source of protein. Andre KB, Lopez MA, 2013. Zootaxa, 3940:1-92., Cowie RH, Hayes KA, 2012. Position and number of penial sheath glands for a number of ampullariid species have been tabulated by Hayes et al. There are molecular method to separate some species. The golden apple snail situation in Cambodia. Note the 'operculum' closing the opening of the shell. Burn straw and stubble to destroy the snails. Keep weeds in check around paddies and on bunds so snails can be seen easily. Houston, Texas, USA. Other Pomacea species are similar, e.g., Pomacea maculata. Pomacea canaliculata. Keawjam R S, Upatham E S, 1990. The shell spire is generally low but variable. Species in the Old World genus Pila, which also bear large, round, generally brownish or greenish dextrally coiling shells, have a brittle and calcified as opposed to a corneous and somewhat flexible operculum. Positive interactions of nonindigenous species: invasional meltdown? However, given its success as an invasive alien species it is not surprising that the majority of clutches display high hatching success, often 70% or more (Barnes et al., 2008). The southernmost latitude at which it occurs appears to be near Buenos Aires, Argentina (Hayes et al., 2012; Byers et al., 2013). Hawaii Journal of Medicine and Public Health, 72(6, Suppl. Other Common Names . The tentacles are long and tapering, highly extensible and with large but short eye stalks at their outer bases. The acute upper lethal limit was below 42°C. Other species of Pomacea possess, in addition to an apical gland, both a medial and basal gland. The following statement (from the CABI Invasive Species Compendium datasheet for P. canaliculata) may equally apply to P. maculata: “Once introduced to an area, it spreads rapidly through bodies of water such as canals and rivers and during floods. The eggs hatch after about 2 weeks, depending on temperature, and the young fall into the water. New Jersey, USA: TFH Publications, Inc, 121 pp, Peterson RT, 1980. P. maculata generally has a thicker shell with a more distinctive angulate shoulder; the inner apertural lip is characteristically yellow to reddish-orange, which was also noted in the original descriptions of P. insularum and P. gigas, which are now treated as synonyms of P. maculata. Prime waterfront real estate: apple snails choose wild taro for oviposition sites. The name golden apple snail has also been used for an entirely different species, P. dolioides (incorrectly identified as P. lineata), in Suriname (Wiryareja and Tjoe-Awie, 2006). Horgan FG, Stuart AM, Kudavidanage EP, 2012. Physiological studies on P. maculata were carried out by Ramakrishnan (2007). The most common apple snail in aquarium shops is Pomacea bridgesii, also called Pomacea diffusa, (the spike-topped apple snail). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Scientific Opinion on the evaluation of the pest risk analysis on Pomacea insularum, the island apple snail, prepared by the Spanish Ministry of Environment and Rural and Marine Affairs. The length of the life cycle depends very much on temperature and the occurrence of seasons. © Copyright 2020 CAB International. Introduction of the apple snail Pomacea canaliculata and its impact on rice agriculture. In fact, no published study has suggested that P. maculata consumes substantial quantities of E. crassipes quickly. Thailand), the dates given by Mochida (1991) for introduction of Pomacea to particular countries can therefore be taken as the earliest date that P. maculata might have been introduced to those countries. maculata’. d'Orbigny. Differences in shell morphology are most notable in newly hatched juveniles. They tend to have more prominent shell spires, though this character is variable in all three species, and the sutures between their whorls are not deeply channellized. A freshwater pest of great importance in tropical and sub-tropical wetlands around the world, well adapted to periods of droughts and excessive rainfall. Apple Snails in the Aquarium., Naylor R, 1996. For S. lancifolia and P. hemitomon, one study (Burlakova et al., 2009) showed low to moderate consumption while no consumption occurred in another (Baker et al., 2010). Seasonal patterns have not been studied in the native range of P. maculata. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0056812, CABI, Undated. Heavy snail mortality occurred but eggs were still found the following year. (2012), the common name ‘island apple snail’ became inappropriate. EPPO, 2020. When the first introduction of P. maculata took place is not known. (2011). The snails survive dry times by burying into the mud to hibernate for up to 6 months. The greatest water loss at day 161 was 63% at >95% RH and 30°C among the smallest snails. The recent apple snails of Africa and Asia (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Ampullariidae: Afropomus, Forbesopomus, Lanistes, Pila, Saulea): a nomenclatural and type catalogue. USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Pathways for transmission of angiostrongyliasis and the risk of disease associated with them. The Biologist, 53:136-152, Roll U, Dayan T, Simberloff D, Meinis HK, 2008. Although its shell is coloured similarly to that of P. maculata, adults are smaller than those of P. maculata and the suture between successive whorls is not deeply channelled, making it fairly readily distinguished, at least as adults, from P. maculata. P. maculata does not perform well in an aquarium, however, and so pet owners will often release the illegally acquired snail ‘back’ into the environment without any awareness of the consequences. taro in some parts of the USA), environmental managers should carefully inspect stems and leaves for the presence of clutches or hatchlings. Note that metaldehyde pelleted baits have come under scrutiny by pesticide regulators and countries are reconsidering their use. Although some specific preferences may exist when offered different suites of plants, P. maculata can be considered a generalist herbivore that feeds on diverse aquatic plants (see the section on Hosts/Species Affected). Communication of the potential negative impacts of P. maculata on human health (as a vector of Angiostrongylus cantonensis) and agriculture (as a consumer of rice and other wetland crops) has recently raised public awareness, but only to a limited extent. P. maculata has a wide native range in South America extending from the Rio de la Plata in Argentina and Uruguay, through Paraguay and northwards in Brazil through the Pantanal to north of Manaus in Amazonia, overlapping with the range of P. canaliculata in the south (Hayes et al., 2008, 2009a, b, 2012). Eggs of the golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata, on a taro petiole (Thailand). Present in south-western Japan and the Ryukyu Islands, Introduced from elsewhere in east or South-East Asia. Curated hierarchies for Pomacea maculata (Perry 1810). The number of eggs per clutch ranges from a few hundred to as many as ~4500, with an average of ~1500 (Barnes et al., 2008; Burks et al., 2010). The snail could be incorporated into educational displays in aquariums that teach about wetland ecosystems and some school teachers may use the large shells for art projects. The shell coils dextrally – that is, when viewed with the apex uppermost the aperture is on the right side of the shell. The shell has five or six whorls on average, increasing rapidly in size, with a deep suture between the whorls. In Florida, initial control efforts in Wellman’s Pond focused on hand collection of snails but this proved extremely time consuming and ineffective. The name Pomaceainsularum, formerly used as the valid name of P. maculata, is now a junior objective synonym of P. maculata, following the designation of a single specimen as both the neotype of P. maculata and lectotype of P. insularum; the same specimen was also designated as the neotype of P. gigas, thereby making this also a junior objective synonym of P. maculata (Hayes et al., 2012).
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